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Thursday, November 6, 2014

Abstract


Diabetes mellitus coexists at a greater frequency with hypertension, obesity, central obesity, dyslipedemia and proteinuria and that markedly increases the risk of atherosclerotic disease. A study was done for a period of four months in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia to compare the prevalence of atherosclerotic risk factors between diabetic and non diabetic general population. One hundred ninety nine diabetic cases were selected from two hospitals diabetic clinics and 195 non diabetics subjects were selected from urban and rural areas. The general prevalence of hypertension in the entire study population was 18.8%, with 26.1% in diabetics and 10.2% in non diabetics. Multivariate logistic regression showed that hypertension, central obesity, overweight and obesity, and ethnicity had strong association with possibility of diabetes mellitus. The reason for possible racial difference to cardiovascular risk factors and population awareness to these factors should be studied. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2010;24(2):145-147]

Abstract

Background

The effects of prenatal Zinc Deficiency (ZD) and Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) on birthweight are controversial and their interaction has not been investigated.

Objective

To assess the independent and interaction effects of prenatal zinc and vitamin A deficiencies on birthweight in rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

Methodology

A community-based prospective cohort study design was employed. Six hundred fifty pregnant women in their second or third trimester were randomly selected and their serum zinc and retinol concentrations were determined. About 575 subjects were successfully followed until delivery and birthweight was measured within 72 hours after delivery. The association between the exposures and birthweight was examined using log-binomial and liner regression analyses. Potential interaction between ZD and VAD was examined using Synergy Index (SI).

Results

The mean birthweight (± standard deviation) was 2896 g (±423). About 16.5% (95% CI: 13.5–19.6%) of the babies had Low Birthweight (LBW). Prenatal ZD and VAD were not significantly associated to LBW with Adjusted Relative Risk (ARR) of 1.25 (95 CI: 0.86–1.82) and 1.27 (95% CI: 0.86–1.87), respectively. Stratified analysis on the basis of gestational trimester showed that the occurrence of the deficiencies neither in the second nor third trimester were associated to LBW. The deficiencies did not show synergetic interaction in causing LBW [SI = 1.04 (95% CI: 0.17–6.28)]. Important risk factors of LBW were maternal illiteracy [RR = 1.80 (95% CI: 1.11–2.93)], female sex of the newborn [RR = 1.79 (95% CI: 1.19–2.67)], primiparity [RR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.35)], short maternal stature [RR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.06–2.51)] and maternal thinness [RR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.03–2.25)]. In the linear regression model, elevated CRP was also negatively associated to birthweight.

Conclusion


LBW is of public health significance in the locality. The study did not witness any independent or interaction effect of prenatal ZD and VAD on birthweight.
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The Ethiopian Coffee Exporters Association (ECEA) said preparations have been finalized to host to host the third International Ethiopian Coffee Conference being held on Thursday and Friday (November 6-7) this week. The General Manager of the Asscoation, Alemseged Assefa, said that conference will help to promote and increase quality of Ethiopian coffee.
The conference is intended to bring exporters and buyers together as well as evaluate the quality of Ethiopia's coffee, discuss ways of improving the crop, promote the traceability of Ethiopian coffee and widen the export coffee market.
An estimated 300 participants will attend the conference from all those who involved in the coffee market as well as researchers, coffee buyers and others. A number of research papers will be presented by national and foreign experts, and coffee sector policies and strategies will be discussed. Ethiopia earned 720 million US dollars from coffee exports during the last fiscal year.
Source: allAfrica.com
VIENNA, Nov 5 2014 (IPS) - With annual economic growth rates of over 10 percent and attractive investment conditions due to low infrastructural and labour costs, Ethiopia is eagerly trying to rise from the status of low-income to middle-income country in the next 10 years.
Ethiopia, with some 94 million inhabitants, is the second most populous country in Africa after Nigeria, but it remains a predominantly rural country. Only 17.5 percent of the population lives in urban areas, mainly Addis Ababa.
It is also one of the continent’s fastest growing economies. Between 2015 and 2018 growth is expected to average 7.3 percent, according to a recent study by the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO).
While economic growth since 2006/2007 doubled per capita income to 550 dollars in 2012/13, and the percentage of people living below the national poverty line dropped from 38.9 in 2004 to 29.6 in 2011, government sources admit that eradication of poverty remains a compelling issue.
“There is not a single country in the world which has reached a high state of economic and social development without having developed an advanced industrialised sector” – UNIDO Director General Li Yong
The official target of rising to a middle-income country is considered to be realistic, but an East Asian diplomat accredited to the African Union in Addis Ababa says there is reason to be sceptical, partly because although the amount of foreign direct investment (FDI) rose from 0.5 percent in 2008 to 2 percent in 2013, investors continue to face trade constraints.
According to UNIDO, these are mainly related to border-logistics. Djibouti, the main import-export seaport used by Ethiopia, is situated 781 km from Addis Ababa, which makes the cost of land transportation a critical factor.
It is against this backdrop that UNIDO has chosen Ethiopia, along with Senegal, as a pilot country for its ambitious inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID) programme, which aims to achieve industrialisation in developing countries in order to eradicate poverty and create prosperity.
According to UNIDO Director General Li Yong, “there is not a single country in the world which has reached a high state of economic and social development without having developed an advanced industrialised sector”.
What distinguishes the ISID programme is that “current modes of industrialisation are neither fully inclusive nor properly sustainable”, he added. UNIDO is therefore not merely promoting industrialisation but trying to approach the needs and challenges of the globalised world that demand future-oriented concepts.
Promoting the sustainability that should be inherent to industrialisation, UNIDO says that the ISID programme takes into account environmental factors together with its partner countries and organisations.
It also fosters an industrialisation that is inclusive in sharing the benefits of the generated prosperity for all parties involved, thereby promoting social equality within populations as well as an equal distribution between men and women to ensure that nobody is excluded from the benefits of growth.
To show how these objectives can be met and to promote ISID, UNIDO organised the Second Forum on ISID from Nov. 4 to 5 in Vienna. In an opening statement, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said: “We have a vision of a just world where resources are optimised for the good of people. Inclusive and sustainable industrial development can drive success.”
The Secretary-General, who is a strong advocate of the sustainable development agenda, also said that in order to achieve this objective, “industrial development must abandon old models that pollute. Instead, we need sustainable approaches that help communities preserve their resources.”
Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn of Ethiopia and Prime Minister Mahammed Dionne of Senegal – representing the two pilot countries chosen for ISID – commended UNIDO for implementing a partnership programme, and Ethiopia’s State Minister of Industry, Mebrahtu Meles, emphasised that building industrial zones will accelerate industrialisation, as has been done by Asian countries such as China.
Forum participants expressed optimism about Ethiopia achieving economic growth through inclusive and industrial sustainable development provided that leadership and vision focused on the country’s comparative advantages while improving infrastructure.
They said that regional integration could be key for the development of the country, and called for further exploration of UNIDO’s role as a catalyst of transformational change.
In particular additional efforts were required to enhance the productivity in existing light industries such as agro-food processing, textiles and garments, leather and leather products. There was also a need to diversify by launching new industries such as heavy metal and chemicals and building up high-tech industries like packing, biotechnology, electronics, information and communications.
The ambassadors of China, Japan and Italy to Ethiopia – Xie Xiaoyan, Kazuhiro Suzuki and Giuseppe Mistretta respectively – as well as business stakeholders and development banks assured their continued support in helping Ethiopia take the path towards inclusive and sustainable industrial development, mainly through UNIDO.
Source: www.ipsnews.net
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