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Saturday, April 6, 2013

Assessment of Production and Marketing System of Goats
In Dale District, Sidama Zone
Endeshaw Assefa
M.Sc Thesis
In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree of Master
of Science in Animal Production
Submitted to
The School of Graduate Studies
Department of Animal Production and Range Sciences
June 2007Awassa Acknowledgements
I would like to express my deepest gratitude and heartfelt thanks to my advisor, Dr Girma
Abebe, for his invaluable comments, supports and follow up from the preparation of the proposal
up to the end of the research work. His careful follow up and guidance through out the study
period has contributed a lot to cover and complete timely the wider area coverage of the study
site. I also extend my sincere thanks to my co-advisor, Dr Yosef T/ Georgis, for his support in
providing valuable comments through out the study period and his important guidance during
data analysis.
Also my heart felt thanks extended to my co advisors Dr Azage Tegegne and Dr Berhanu G/
Medhin for their follow up, guidance and support in providing invaluable comments and
suggestions throughout my study period.
Sidama Zone Agricultural and Rural Development Coordination Office is highly acknowledged
for the material and. facility support and follow-up of the study. I would like to express again my
deepest and heartfelt thanks to Shebedino Agricultural and Rural Development Coordination
Office for their support in providing transport, materials and all rounded support from the very
beginning of the study period up to the end. Agricultural and Rural Development Coordination
Offices in Dale, Wonsho and Loka Abaya districts, the development agents and experts of the
three districts, as well as all participated farmers deserve my deepest appreciation for their
unreserved cooperation and collaboration during the study.
The study was carried out through the financial support of the IPMS project. I would like to
thank the project coordinators who facilitated this opportunity for researchers and graduate
fellows. Also my thanks extended to Ato Ketema Yilma and all the IPMS staff in ILRI and at
Dale Pilot Learning Woreda for their wholehearted support during field works and office
activities. Abbreviations used in the text
SSA Sub Saharan Africa
MoA Ministry of Agriculture
CSA Central statistics Authority
SNNPRS Southern Nations Nationalities and peoples Regional State
WAD West African Dwarf
FAO Food and Agricultural Organization
IMPACT International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural
Commodities and Trade
AFRCSM Sub Moist
SH Sub Humid
IPMS Improving Productivity and Marketing Success
KA Kebele Administration
Fig Figure
Eg Example
TLU Tropical Livestock Unit
AFM Age at First Mating
AFK Age at first Kidding
WA Weaning Age
AKI Average Kidding Interval
LS Litter Size
Masl meter above sea level
No Number
Appendix table 1 analysis of variance of age of the household – Page number
Appendix table 2 Analysis of variance of variance of family size comparison by Agro eco logy
Appendix table 3 Analysis of variance of livestock holdings comparison in Agro ecology
Appendix table 4 Analysis of variance for Goat holdings comparison among agro ecologies
Appendix table 5 Analysis of variance for Reproductive performances in the three agro
ecological zones as responded by farmers
Appendix table 6 Analysis of variance for Litter size and parity among agro ecologies
Appendix table 7 Analysis of variance for growth results from flock monitoring
Appendix table 8 Questionnaire for diagnostic survey of production system
Appendix table 9 Check list for Rapid Marketing Analysis (RMA) List of Tables
Table 1 Age of the household – Page number
Table 2 Family size and land holdings in two three-agro ecologies
Table 3 Mean livestock holdings per household
Table 4 Number of Goats per household
Table 5 Goats and sheep numbers per household before two year and of present as recalled by
flock holders
Table 6 Months with the highest number of birth
Table 7 Mean values for various reproductive parameters.
Table 8 Litter size and parity of goats
Table 9 Age at first service for backs.
Table 10 percentages of farmers that use different sources of breeding bucks
Table 11 Reasons for keeping bucks
Table 12 Goat milking and milk unitization percentage.
Table 13 percentage of respondents indicating feeds sources available for goats
Table 14 Shrubs and frees commonly fed to goats in the three agro ecologies.
Table 15 Months with surplus feed
Table 16 Months for the shortage of feeds
Table 17 Management systems
Table 18 the responsibility of family members in goat management
Table 19 Water sources during wet season
Table 20 Water sources during dry season
Table 21 Dry season distances
Table 22 Wet season distances
Table 23 Watering frequencies
Table 24 Problems related to health and disease control
Table 25 Common distance of the area
Table 26 Months of the highest goat mortality
Table 27 Type of goats sold in the last 12 months and the place of sales
Table 28 the highest around lowest price of goats in type and age estimated by responders List of Figures
Figure 1 respondent by age and level of education …………Page
Figure 2 Income sources of households……………………………………………..
Figure 3 …………..
Figure 4
Figure 5 Typical goal flocks in moist kola (Loka Abaya)…………………………….
Figure 6 Purpose of keeping goats……………………………………………………..
Figure 7 Experience of farmers in goat husbandry ……………………………………
Figure 8 Criteria for culling goats……………………………………………………….
Figure 9 Criteria for selecting bucks ……………………………………………………
Figure 10 Lactating doe taken from a flock at moist kola district
Figure 11 Goats being looked after by midwife during supplementary gazing
Figure 12 Problems affecting the expansion of goat production
Figure 13 Castrate goats fattened by goat holder (Loka Abaya)
Figure 14 Assessing body conditions of goats in the market
Figure 15 reasons for selling goats
Figure 16 Old doe with triplet kinds (moist kola Loka Abaya district) Assessment on Production and Marketing System of Goats
in Dale District, Sidama Zone
Endeshaw Assefa (BSc)
Advisors: Girma Abebe (PhD); Azage Tegegne (PhD); Berhanu G/ Medhin and Yosef T/Georgis
Production system and marketing study was undertaken using on 120 sample households to
identify and describing goat production systems, to determine production potentials,
opportunities and challenges of goat’s production and to describe marketing systems. Three The
households were drawn from different location and represented three agro-ecologies; Moist
Weyina Dega, Dega and Moist Kola. Sampled households were interviewed on socio economic
characteristics, flock structure, reproductive performances of goats, feed resources and feeding,
routine husbandry management systems and marketing using a pre-tested formal questionnaire.
Flock monitoring to identify off take and acquisitions like birth, purchase, transfer and disposal
like sales, slaughter, death was carried out for about seven months (September to March). Three
primary, one secondary and one terminal markets were studied at Dale, Tula and Hawasa,
respectively using Rapid Marketing Appraisal (RMA) technique. The average family size was
7.5± . 247 per household, out of which 5.6% of the households were females and there was no
significant difference (p<0.05) in family size among the three-agro ecologies. About 75 % of
interviewed male households and 50% female households were literate. The overall mean
livestock holdings was 13.1 ±1.16. Among the three-agro ecologies, the average livestock
holdings in Moist Kola was significantly higher than in Moist Weyina Dega and Dega. The
overall mean goat holdings per household was 5.98 and there is a wider range of variations in
flock sizes in agro-ecologies??. The overall mean AWA, AFM, AFK, AKI, was 5.2, 9.7, 14.9, 8.6
and 16 months, respectively. Overall mean litter size was 2.07 and lifetime kidding age (parity)
was 13.2 months. AWA in Moist Dega was 6.47± 45 , and was significantly longer (p<0.05) than
in Moist Weyina Dega and Moist Kola. Similarly, the average AFM was 16.13 months in Moist
Dega, and was significantly longer (P<0.05) than in Moist Kola but. Moist Weyina Dega was
intermediate of the two-agro ecologies. AKI was 8.56, 7.27 and 8.57 months in Moist Dega,
Moist Weyina Dega and Moist Kola, respectively and varied significant (P<0.05) among the
three agro ecologies. Mean LS for Moist Kola and Moist Weyina Dega was significantly(p<0.05)
lower than that of Moist Dega. Goats in Moist Kola have shown long lifetime kidding or parity
(P) of 16.27 years, which is significantly longer (P<0.05) than that of the other two agro-
ecologies. Feed resources for goats varied among agro ecologies. Shrubs and trees are the
major feed sources for free foraging goats in the Moist Kola but, feeds from crop by products,
crop residues, enset and fruit parts, vegetables and chat leftovers are the main feed sources for
tethered and herded goats of Moist Weyina Dega and Dega. Lack of feed, diseases and
marketing are the major constraints affecting goat’s production. The increasing demand for goat
meat, the awareness of rural goat herder about the current price and willingness and attempt to
carry out small scale goat fattening activities to utilize the current goat market, the
conduciveness of the environment and sufficient man power in the three agro ecologies are the
encouraging opportunities to improve goats production and marketing. Key words Goats, Agro ecology, Reproductive performances, litter size, kidding interval, age at first
mating, Parity, Feed resources, crop residue, bushes and shrubs 1. Introduction
Goats account for about 30% of Africa's ruminant livestock and contribute to about 17
and 12% of the total meat and milk production, respectively. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)
accounts for over 60% of the total goat population in Africa, with estimated 147 million
goats representing about 80 indigenous breeds or strains distributed across all agroecological zones and ruminant livestock production systems (Lebbie, 2004).
Goats are highly adapted to a broad range of climatic and geographic conditions and are
more widely distributed than any other mammalian livestock. The unique features of
goats which include selective feeding behavior that enables them to select the most
nutritious part of plant, fast reproduction, consumption of diversity of plant species and
low capital requirement makes them very important especially for the poor at densely
populated mixed farming areas.
Moreover, goats are capable of producing more milk on less feed and are not adversely
affected by declining range condition as cattle. They also have a significant
socioeconomic role in rural areas and especially in societies where women are among the
most resource poor people in Africa.
According to the most recent estimates, Ethiopia has 23.4 million goats (MoA, 2004).
Contrary to the general assumption that goats in Ethiopia are generally considered associated with arid and semi arid lowlands, about a third of the national goat’s
population is found in agricultural highlands (Workneh, 2003; Nigatu, 1994). In Southern
Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, (SNNPR), about 2.7 million goats are
kept by small flock holders at wider range of agro ecological zones (CSA, 2003). In the
Sidama zone about 183,462 goats are reared and contribute to 6.7% of the Regional
goat’s population. Among the woredas (districts) in Sidama Zone, Dale Woreda has
about 17,248 goats contributing to 17.1% of the total goat’s population in the Zone (CSA,
Dale Woreda is the biggest and densely populated district among the ten districts of the
Sidama Zone having suitable climatic diversity for plant growth that favors goat
production. The diversity of plant species grown, availability of agricultural and agroindustrial by-products and integration of goats into the farming system makes the area
suitable for goat production. In the district, due to rapid population growth and
subsequent expansion of farmland, grazing land is shrinking and has reached a stage
where it could not support large ruminant production. In such a circumstance, goat
production has a role in serving as a source of income through sale of kids and milk
production. In recent years, the demand for goat meat is continuously rising presumably
due to the growing export market for goat. However, despite the huge number of goats
that are reared by smallholders and agro pastoralists in the district, productivity of the
goat and their system of production has received little attention in research and
development endeavors. In the diagnosis and program design of the project entitled “Improving Productivity and
Market Success (IPMS)of Ethiopian Farmers” project, goat production and marketing
was considered as one of the priority commodities in Dale Woreda. In this regard,
assessment on the supply and demand of live animals for both the domestic and export
markets was identified to be an important research issue. Proper description of the
production and marketing systems and identification of the actual production constraints
as well as potential productivity of goats in the woreda is fundamental to any intervention
that will be designed and executed for the benefit of smallholders in the area. It was also
hypothesized that differences in agro-ecological zones results in different performance
levels of goats, their socio economic importance and their management system.
The objective of this study was, therefore, to study goat’s production and marketing
system. Specific objectives were to :
 - identify and describe goat production systems
 - determine production potentials
- describe marketing systems and identify opportunities and challenges of goats
. 2. Literature Review
2.1. Production systems
Small ruminants in tropical Africa are kept under traditional extensive systems. In the arid and
sub humid zones, cattle are reared with sheep and/or goats. In the humid zone, animals generally
graze freely, with access to household and kitchen wastes when available (Ademosun, 2003).
Production systems are identified on the basis of contribution of the livestock sub sector to the
total household revenue. Almost all the goat production systems in southern Ethiopia have been
designated as “traditional” (Workneh, 1992). These traditional production systems include
pastoral, agro-pastoral, agricultural and urban.
Production systems are segregated according to the degree of dependency on livestock and
livestock products for income or food, type of agriculture practiced in association with livestock
and mobility and duration of movement. Accordingly, more than 50% of household income
comes from livestock and in arid areas where there are little or no cropping activity, owners
travel longer distance year round looking for forage and water along specific orbits are classified
as pastoral system. In the semi arid regions, 10-50% of the income comes from livestock and
agriculture production is practiced along with livestock management and production. The system
is either transhumant or sedentary and is classified as agro-pastoral. The sedentary agricultural
system is where income of less than 10% is derived from livestock/livestock products and
livestock production is secondary to crop production (Wilson, 1988; Workneh 1992). Urban and
peri-urban production system is practiced in town and cities by wage earners who invest cash on
goat production for short-term profit (Ibrahim1998). In pastoral system land assumes more importance whereas in agro pastoral, agricultural and
urban/peri-urban system labor is more important. As intensification increases, labor becomes
more important than land. The urban system is capital intensive since farmers invest cash to buy
goats or sheep to fatten for sale during peak demand. In this system the high wage for labor is the
main constraint (Ibrahim, 1998). According to the same author, in the pastoral system small
ruminants obtain their feed from rangelands. In agro-pastoral systems rangeland is used but crop
residues assume more importance. In most agricultural systems, crop residue, household waste
and forages are used for feeding small ruminants.
Traditional livestock farming is very diverse and is dependent on climate and soil, and is very
much linked to the availability of local resources either plant growth or the species and breed of
animals reared. Traditionally extensive systems of production share common characteristics such
as limited number of animals per unit area relatively limited use of advanced technology low
productivity per animal grazing and the use of agriculture-on farm by products (Boyazoglu,
2002). 2.2. Growth and reproductive performance
A study using West African Dwarf (WAD) goats owned by 45 farmers indicated that in the wet
season goats had access to either fodder banks or natural pasture, after crop harvest goats roamed
freely. The result of these two grazing systems indicated that mean litter size was 1.67 + 0.08 and
1.56 + 0.06, respectively, and was affected by parity (P<0.05). Births accounted for 87% of all
entries while multiple births accounted for about 68 % of all the kids (Ikwuegbu et al., 1994).
Field performance of goats in the humid southeastern regions of Cote d’Ivoire, reported that the
uncorrected litter size was 1.52. Annual kidding rate was 234.1%, and this high reproductive
performance was achieved due to the short kidding intervals in three kidding over a period of
two years. Number of kids born per year in Djallonke does varied between 2.0 and 2.7
(Armbruster, 1993).
In South Africa mean kidding percentage, (number of kids born per doe per year), for maiden
does was 76% and that older does 64%. Abortion rate was 29%, and the high incidence of
abortion may be indicative of inadequate nutrition during the last stage of pregnancy
(Mahanjana, 2000)
Kidding rate and litter size of goats kept in southern Ethiopia was reported to be 80% and 1.03,
respectively (Girma et al., 2000). According to these authors, low litter size obtained was
attributed to the fact that most goats were in their first parity. Kids could attain body weight of
up to 20 kg at less than one year of age (Girma et al., 2000)
Preliminary survey of indigenous goat types and goat husbandry practice in Southern Ethiopia
indicated that the highest litter size of 1.35 (n=2463), two quadruplets, 48 triplets and 755 twins
were recorded for home bred and purchased does implying the multiple birth frequency of 32. 68 %. This goat type may be categorized as a dual-purpose type (Workneh, 1992).
On farm study conducted on Arsi Bale goat types in Boricha District Sidama zone and Arsi
Negele District (Oromia), by Behailu and Samuel, (2003) indicated that more mating was
observed between December and February with the highest kidding occurring between June and
August. Age at first kidding was reported to be 441±101 days (c.v. =40 days), fertility rate of
65.9% prolificacy 1.4% kids per birth, and kidding interval of 282±87 days (c.v. 24%). In the
Boricha district of the Sidama zone, reported 1.1 kids per birth of litter size, 325±92 days
kidding interval and 586±87days (c.v. =15%) for age at first kidding.
A recent on farm monitoring of goats conducted in Adami Tulu by Tatek et al. (2004) indicated
that average prolificacy, parturition interval, litter size were 121%, 8.07 months and 1.21,
respectively. These authors also reported that among the total births, about 36.3% were twins and
triplets. The same authors from their on farm growth performance assessment of Arsi Bale goats
also reported that birth weight, weaning weight and pre- weaning growth rate were 2.23 kg, 8.39
kg, and 72.21 g/day, respectively. 2.3 Description of goat types in the study area
According to the classification by Farm Africa (1996), goats in study area fall under the ArsiBale type. The Arsi-Bale goats are described as short legged, hairy, short and erect ears and
horns with predominantly dark color. The Sidama goats according to Farm Africa are
synonymous with Arsi-Bale, and described as medium sized, slender, convex head profile,
horizontally carried ear, shorthaired and backward oriented horn (Nigatu, 1994).
Arsi-Bale breed is found throughout the Arsi and Bale regions up to altitudes of 4000 masl. They
are also found in the higher altitudes of Sidama and western Hararge. The goat breed is found in
all the agro-pastoral lowlands of the Rift Valley from Lake Abaya in the south-to-south Shoa in
the north. Arsi-Bale goats are kept in small flocks in mixed farming systems in the highlands, as
well as in the agro-pastoral systems in the lower altitudes (Farm Africa, 1998).
The Sidama goat is from Arsi Bale type and distributed throughout with the Sidama ethnic
group. Bale mountains manifest hairy coat apparently due to the influence of Gishe (Arsi-Bale)
goats in Bale. The population size of this goat type is estimated to be about 150,000 based on
official estimate of goat’s number in the Sidama area of about 6500 square kilometer. This goat
type is spread across three-production system in Sidama. Flock sizes are three to four times
bigger in agro-pastoral system than in the highland agricultural zone (Workneh, 1992).
Woyto Guji goat types related to Arsi Bale goat found in southern Sidama North Wolayita, and
South Omo mainly kept by pastoral ethnic group. More notably this goat type inhabits those
areas in Sidama known to be endemic with trypanosomiasis especially to the south of Lake
Abaya and Western Genale Catchments area (Farm Africa, 1996). 2.4. Feed resources and feeding system
The survey conducted on indigenous goat type in Southern Ethiopia revealed that in pastoral and
agro-pastoral systems of Southern Ethiopia; rangelands provided the only source of feed
throughout the year. Both Sidama and Borena agro-pastoralists supplement goats with thinning
of maize and sorghum and crop residues during the wet and dry seasons In agricultural areas not
only crop residue but also chopped fodder, browses and kitchen wastes are supplied to goats.
Goats also graze on fallow land in agricultural systems perennial crop growing areas, presumably
due to limited pastureland (Workneh, 1992)
The potential of crop residues as livestock feed increases with rising population density, while
the demand for them depends on the livestock population density and the alternative functions of
crop residues in the farming system. At the village level, stocking rates differ greatly between
individual farmers. Stock-poor farmers may have excess to feed, while stock-rich farmers,
despite having more cropland and higher crop yields, may be short of feed. In mixed cropping
systems with long growing seasons, intercropping may restrict the access of livestock to crop
residue, such that the residues of early-maturing crops may decompose in situ without being
grazed (Leeuw, 2003).
Increased livestock holdings will stimulate mono cropping or the intercropping of crops of
similar cycle length. In the future, rising demand for locally grown crops and for livestock
products may lead to higher use of inputs, resulting in higher crop and crop residue yields, feed
budgeting and the allocation of feeds to different classes of stock ranked according to their
revenue-earning capacity. New cropping patterns may evolve that allocate larger shares of land
to grain legumes and roots/tubers. This will diversify and enhance crop residue quality, a process
that can be further promoted through the inclusion of by-products in feeds (Leeuw, 2003). Perennial crops (enset and coffee) are common in areas with a high population density such as
Sidama. The system of feeding is predominantly free grazing. Tethered feeding is practiced
around perennial crop growing areas in Sidama. Some farmers provide crop residues, thinning of
maize or sorghum, kitchen waste and chopped browse. Provision of mineral supplements in the
form of natural licks and table salt is common among the Sidama people. Kids are sometimes
provided with supplements (Farm Africa, 1998)
 Livestock feed scarcity is often the major cause of livestock mortality during drought in the
Enset (Enset ventricosum)-livestock mixed farming systems in the Kokossa district of the Bale
highlands in southeastern Ethiopia (Desta, 2004). Livestock mortality associated with feed
scarcity was investigated in the livestock-enset, enset-livestock and enset-livestock-cereals
production systems of the Ararso, Jafaro and Bokore sub districts of Kokossa, respectively, using
farmers' perceptions during a drought year in 1998, an average rainfall year in 1999 and a wet
year in 2000. Livestock mortality was variable between years and between farming systems.
Greater livestock mortality occurred during the drought than in an average or wet year.
Generally, mortality was greater in the livestock-enset and least in the enset-cereals-livestock
production system. Among livestock, cattle experienced greater mortality than small ruminants
and equines (Desta, 2004).
Total feed demand depends on the overall local stocking rate, but the ratio of supply to demand
varies across seasons and years as well as between individual farms. Variability in ratios between
farms is greatest where communal grazing land is scarce, as for example in the Ethiopian
highlands, Rwanda and Kenya. Where access and use of feed is entirely farmer-controlled,
benefits from intensification of the crop subsystem can translate directly into higher livestock, modest increments in input levels can double the output of cereal crop residue, which, having
full control, the farmer can manipulate and manage so as to increase feed supplies and effective
use by livestock. When farmers perceive the true value of their crop residues they often reassess
them as a marketable commodity and start to engage in trade in feeds. This allows stock-poor
producers to extract added value when intensifying their own cropping enterprises (Leeuw,
The goats can be left to forage free-range for part of the day but are brought in to be fed the main
part of their ration. In the dry season, free-range goats will only find dry vegetation or crop
residues in the fields (stubble grazing). These may supply some energy, but the protein content is
very low. Even by cutting and carrying such foodstuffs to enclosed animals it will be hard to
meet their requirements. Goats can be fed fruits and vegetables like cassava or sweet potatoes, or
the leaves of these plants, if available. Banana peelings, and sugar cane tops are also suitable,
although not so nutritious. Feed supplements will also have to be given, if goats are enclosed
during the rains, fresh grasses, legumes, tree foliage should be cut for them. Fodder trees are
useful for this. Crop thinning or cuttings (maize, etc.) can also be fed, as well as weeds. Sweet
potato vines are very nutritious (Jansen, 2004).
The effect of different feeding systems was conducted using Somali and Arsi Bale goats’ It
was found that Somali goats managed under semi-intensive system returned a higher profit
margin than the goats managed under extensive and intensive systems (Getahun et al., 2005).
These authors suggested combining grazing with concentrate supplementation is potentially
more profitable than either grazing without concentrate supplementation or pen feeding with
no grazing.

Read more: Assessment of Production and Marketing System of Goats In Dale District, Sidama Zone

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