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Tuesday, December 2, 2014

Sidama people occupy a subsistence niche partitioned between traditional enset agropastoralism and
transitional maize farming. Enset production is low-risk and requires multiple years for cultivation and processing. Maize farming is high-risk, high-yield requiring only one growing season from planting to harvest. Contrasting enset and maize farming we examine effects of crop loss and social shocks on Sidama impulsivity. We argue that impulsivity is a psychological process that is differentially activated by environmental shocks in the stable, traditional enset regime and unstable, transitional maize regime. Using a robust psychometric model derived from Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) items we demonstrate two dimensions of Sidama impulsivity: Careful-Control [CC] and Acts Without Thinking [AWT]. Both dimensions are associated with environmental shocks, but the associations are moderated by social ecological regimes. In the enset regime, effects of shocks on impulsivity are muted. However, increased impulsivity is significantly associated with shocks in the global-market dependent maize regime. Effects on CC were significant for social shocks, but not crop loss, while AWT was associated with crop loss and social shocks. Results may indicate domain-specific aspects of impulsivity in response to environmental perturbation. Impulsivity may be adaptive in the context of active niche construction.

Read more @ http://public.wsu.edu/~rquinlan/Quinlan_et_al.pdf
The FAO honoured achievements of Brazil, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gabon, the Gambia, Iran, Kiribati, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, the Philippines and Uruguay.
Brazil, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gabon, the Gambia, Iran, Kiribati, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, the Philippines and Uruguay according to the FAO are the latest in a growing list of countries to make great strides in combating undernourishment.
During a ceremony at FAO headquarters, the Organization’s Director-General, José Graziano da Silva, awarded diplomas to government representatives of the 13 countries.
“You have overcome major challenges in difficult global economic conditions and policy environments. You have demonstrated the will and mobilized the means,” Graziano da Silva said addressing the award recipients.
The FAO Director –General urged countries to accelerate progress stating that “Progress in eradicating worldwide hunger over the next ten years “is gaining momentum”, but much more needs to be done – 805 million people still suffer from chronic undernourishment.”
To achieve this, there is a need to “improve the quality and efficiency of food systems, promote rural development, increase productivity, raise rural incomes, improve access to food, and strengthen social protection,” Graziano da Silva said.
According to FAO, Ethiopia, Gabon, the Gambia, Iran, Kiribati, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico and the Philippines have now reached the MDG-1 hunger target, while Brazil, Cameroon and Uruguay have also achieved the more ambitious WFS target of halving the number of hungry by 2015.
Among those who received diplomas on behalf of their countries were the Gambia’s Vice President Isatou Njie-Saidy, Brazil’s Minister for Social Development and Fight Against Hunger Tereza Campello, Cameroon’s Minister for Agriculture and Rural Development Menye Essimi, Ethiopia’s Minster of Agriculture Tefera Derbew, Gabon’s Minister for Livestock, Fisheries and Food Security Luc Oyoubi and Mauritania’s Minister for Rural Development Brahim Ould M’Bareck Ould Mohamed el Moctar.
Acoording to the report, 63 developing countries have reached the MDG target, and six more are on track to reach it by 2015. Of the 63 countries which have reached the MDG target, 25 have also achieved the more ambitious World Food Summit (WFS) target of halving the number of undernourished people by 2015.
Key success factors in reducing hunger
The UN State of Food Insecurity in the World 2014 (SOFI 2014) report, released earlier this year, identified several critical factors driving the success achieved by countries in reducing hunger.
Chief among these is transforming political commitment into effective action.
The statistics used to determine the attainment of the MDG and WFS targets are produced by FAO using official data provided by member countries and other international agencies.
The WFS goal was set in 1996, when 180 nations met in Rome to discuss ways to end hunger. The Millennium Development Goals were established by the international community following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration by the UN General Assembly in September 2000.
- See more at: http://www.citifmonline.com/2014/12/02/ghana-lagging-in-fight-against-hunger-fao/#sthash.GDw9aVX6.dpuf