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Tuesday, January 27, 2015

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This month we are featuring our natural processed coffee from the Sidama region of Ethiopia. This isn’t one of our newest offerings. It’s certainly not unique to Heine Brothers’.  It’s not even a “seasonal”; we are usually able to stock this coffee year round.  But these facts and the general ubiquity of the name Sidama (aka Sidamo) among specialty coffee roasters make this coffee no less remarkable.
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In fact, among Heine Brothers’ offerings, Ethiopia Sidama is always atop my list of favorites.  It speaks volumes to the expertise and ingenuity of the farmers (nearly 80,000 of them) organized under the Sidama Coffee Farmers Cooperative Union (SCFCU) that they are so well known in the coffee world, and produce such a unique and interesting cup profile season after season.
This natural, or dry processed, coffee is handled with the fruit on for the drying stage of processing.  The whole cherries dry in the sun for weeks until the desiccated skin resembles fruit leather.  Processing with the fruit on can be tricky, but when done carefully creates one of my favorite flavor profiles for coffee: big bodied, strong notes of candied fruit, wine, dark chocolate and other wonderful things, with a soft citrus acidity that makes the whole cup sparkle.
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The farmers of Sidama Union have been processing this way for countless generations, and have it down to a science.  The coffees they produce are known for distinct blueberry, watermelon, or strawberry up front, followed by a soft wave of semi-sweet dark chocolate in the finish and aftertaste.  My favorite way to enjoy this coffee is in a Chemex, but its incredible complexity means it will be delicious by any brew method.  I make it nearly every day.
The rest of the HB Roastery crew is tired of this grinning idiot waltzing around the roastery exclaiming, “This coffee is sooo good!  So good.”  But, you know what?  I don’t care.  It’s my fave.  I tell them so, and now I’m telling you.  Hope you enjoy.
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Available in-store and online.
የኢትዮጵያ እግር ኳስ ሕጋዊ ሰውነት አግኝቶ መንቀሳቀስ ከጀመረ ከስድስት አሠርታት በላይ እንዳስቆጠረ ማስረጃዎች ያመለክታሉ፡፡
በዚህ ታሪካዊ ጉዞው ፌዴሬሽኑም ሆነ ክለቦች ከመነሻው እንደሌሎቹ አገሮች ወጥ የሆነ አደረጃጀት ኖሯቸው ሊቀጥሉ ባለመቻላቸው ዛሬም በተለያዩ የአሠራር ክፍተቶች እሰጣ ገባ ውስጥ ይገኛሉ፡፡ የዓለም አቀፉ እግር ኳስ ማኅበር (ፊፋ)፣ የአገሪቱ ክለቦች በፊፋ የክለብ አደረጃጀትና የተጨዋቾች የዝውውር መርሕ እንዲተዳደሩ የተለያዩ ሥልጠናዎችን ሲሰጥ መቆየቱ እንደማሳያ ሊወሰድ እንደሚገባውም የሚናገሩ አሉ፡፡ 
የኢትዮጵያ እግር ኳስ ፌዴሬሽንና ክለቦች በአገሪቱ የሚፈፀመው የእግር ኳስ ተጨዋቾች ደረጃና ዝውውር በሕግና በሥርዓት እንዲመራ በፊፋ ዝቅተኛውን የተጨዋቾች ደረጃና ዝውውር መስፈርት ያሟላ እንዲሆን፣ በተጨማሪም አሠራሩ በሕጋዊ ወኪል እንዲመራና ሒደቱም ተጨዋቾችን፣ ክለቦችንና መንግሥትን ተጠቃሚ በማድረግ ለአገሪቱ የእግር ኳስ ዕድገት መፋጠን የራሱን አወንታዊ ሚና ይጫወታል በሚል የተለያዩ አንቀፆችን የያዘ የተጨዋቾች ደረጃና የዝውውር መመሪያ ረቂቅ ሰነድ ለውይይት አቅርበዋል፡፡ ረቂቅ ሰነዱ ከጥር 25 ቀን 2007 ዓ.ም. በኋላ ሕጋዊ መመሪያ ሆኖ በፌዴሬሽኑ ሥራ አስፈጻሚ ኮሚቴ እንደሚፀድቅና እስከዚያ ግን ክለቦች በረቂቅ ሰነዱ በተካተቱ ነጥቦች ውስጥ አለን የሚሉትን ሐሳብ እንዲያንሸራሽሩ ጥር 12 ቀን 2007 ዓ.ም. ፌዴሬሽኑና ክለቦች በካፒታል ሆቴል ባደረጉት የመጀመሪያ የውይይት መድረክ ከስምምነት ደርሰዋል፡፡
ሆኖም ግን መመሪያው ደንብ ሆኖ ሥራ ላይ ከመዋሉ በፊት ረቂቅ ሰነዱ ለክለቦች ቀደም ብሎ እንዲደርስ ተደርጎ በተለይ የክለብ አስተዳዳሪዎችና ባለቤቶች ጉዳዩን በሰከነና በጥልቀት እንዲመክሩበት መደረግ ነበረበት በሚል አንዳንድ ክለቦችና ተጨዋቾች ቅሬታቸውን በመግለጽ ላይ ይገኛሉ፡፡ 
በአገሪቱ የተጨዋቾች ደረጃና ዝውውር ላይ መሠረታዊ የሚባሉ ችግሮች በጣም ብዙ መሆናቸውን የሚገልጹት የብሔራዊ ፌዴሬሽኑ ምክትል ፕሬዚዳንት አቶ ተክለወይኒ አሰፋ፣ መመሪያው ያስፈለገበት ዋና ምክንያት ያለው የተጨዋቾች የዝውውር ሥርዓት ዓለም አቀፍ አሠራርን የተከተለ አለመሆኑ፣ እንደዚህ ዓይነቱ የዝውውር ሥርዓት በተለይም ‹‹የፊርማ ክፍያ›› የሚባለው በማንኛውም አገር የማይታወቅ በመሆኑ፣ በሥርዓቱም ያለውን የገንዘብ ዝውውር ለመቆጣጠር አስቸጋሪ መሆኑ፣ ክለቦች ለተጨዋቾች የሚከፍሉት የፊርማ ገንዘብና ተጨዋቾች ለክለቦች የሚሰጡት አገልግሎት ሊጣጣም ባለመቻሉ፣ አሠራሩ በክለቦች መካከል ተመጣጣኝ ፉክክር እንዳይኖር ከማድረጉም በላይ በተለይ በሒደቱ የፊርማ ገንዘብ የማይጠየቅባቸው ታዳጊዎችና ወጣት ተጨዋች ትኩረት እንዳያገኙ የሚያደርግ መሆኑንና በዋናነትም የኪራይ ሰብሳቢነት አመለካከት እንዲስፋፋ በማድረጉና መንግሥት ከዘርፉ ማግኘት የሚገባው የገቢ ግብር ማሳጣቱን በማስረዳት የመመሪያው አስፈላጊነት አብራርተዋል፡፡
ጊዜ ተወስዶ በደንብ መታየት አለበት ስለሚባለው አቶ ተክለወይኒ፣ ‹‹ረቂቅ ሰነዱን ያዘጋጀው ኮሚቴ ከራሳቸው ከክለቦችና ከተለያዩ ተቋማት የተውጣጡ ባለሙያዎች እንደተመለከቱትና ስለመመሪያው አስፈላጊነት ተገቢውን ጊዜ ወስደው ተነጋግረውበታል፡፡ ከዚህ በላይ ጊዜ ያስፈልገናል የሚሉ ካሉ ከመመሪያው በተቃራኒ ያሉ አካሎች ሊሆኑ ይችላሉ፡፡ መመሪያው ባለመኖሩ የአገሪቱ እግር ኳስ የተፎካካሪነት አቅም ብቻ ሳይሆን፣ በክለቦች መካከልም ያለመመጣጠን ችግር እየተፈጠረ ነው፡፡ ባለው ሕገወጥ የገንዘብ ዝውውር የክለቦች የፋይናንስ አቅም እየተደካመ ነው፡፡ መንግሥት ተገቢውን የገቢ ግብር እያገኘ አይደለም፤›› ብለዋል፡፡
‹‹ይህን ሁሉ ሕገወጥ እንቅስቃሴ በማስቆምና ሥርዓት ለማስያዝ የማንሠራ ከሆነ የእኛ እዚህ መቀመጥ አስፈላጊነቱ ምንድነው?›› በማለት ነው ስለረቂቅ ሰነዱ ምንነት ለተሳታፊዎች ያስረዱት፡፡
የስፖርት ኮሚሽን ምክትል ኮሚሽነር አቶ አምበሳው እንየው በበኩላቸው፣ መንግሥት ለስፖርቱ ከመቼውም ጊዜ በበለጠ ትኩረት ሰጥቶ እየተንቀሳቀሰ በሚገኝበት በዚህ ወቅት፣ የተጨዋቾችን ዝውውር ሽፋን በማድረግ እያቆጠቆጠ የመጣው የኪራይ ሰብሳቢነት አመለካከት መፍትሔ ሊቀመጥለት እንደሚገባ ተናግረዋል፡፡ ችግሩን ለማስወገድ እንደ አማራጭ እየተዘጋጀ ያለውን ይህን ሰነድ ክለቦች ትኩረት ሰጥተው ተገቢውን ውይይት እንዲያደርጉበትም ጠይቀዋል፡፡
የኢትዮጵያ ቡና እግር ኳስ ክለብ ሥራ አስኪያጅ አቶ ገዛኸኝ ወልዴ ረቂቅ ሰነዱን ካዘጋጁት አንዱ ናቸው፡፡ ባለሙያው፣ ይህ የተጨዋቾች ደረጃና ዝውውርን አስመልክቶ የተዘጋጀው ረቂቅ ሰነድ ክለቦችና ፌዴሬሽኑ ቀደም ሲል በተስማሙበት መሠረት ተዘጎጅቶ በውይይት እንዲዳብር የቀረበ ስለመሆኑም ተናግረዋል፡፡
የጥናት ቡድኑ ስብስብ ከኢትዮጵያ ቡና፣ ከቅዱስ ጊዮርጊስ፣ ከዳሸን ቢራ፣ ከአርባ ምንጭ ከነማ፣ ከሊግ ኮሚቴ፣ ከይግባኝ ሰሚ ኮሚቴና ከሌሎች ጉዳዩ ከሚመለከታቸው አካላት የተውጣጡ ባለሙያዎች እንደሆኑና ስብስቡ የተቋቋመውም ካለፈው 2006 ክረምት ጀምሮ መሆኑን ተናግረዋል፡፡
የፌዴሬሽኑ አመራር ቦርድ የጥናት ቡድኑ ባቀረበለት የጥናት ሰነድ መሠረት በዋናነት፣ ‹‹የተጨዋቾች የፊርማ ገንዘብ፣›› የሚለው ቀርቶ በወርሃዊ ክፍያ በሚለው እንዲተካና ለዚያ ደግሞ እንደገና ጥናት ተደርጎ ለውይይት የሚሆን ረቂቅ ሰነድ የሚያዘጋጅ ቡድን ከኢትዮጵያ ቡና አቶ ገዛኸኝ ወልዴ፣ ከኢትዮጵያ መድን ድርጅት አቶ ስንታየሁ በቀለ፣ ከፌዴራል ስፖርት ኮሚሽን አቶ አበባው ከልካይ፣ ከአዲስ አበባ ስፖርት ኮሚሽን አቶ ንጉሤ ለማና የጥናት ቡድኑ ሰብሳቢ የፌዴሬሽኑ ምክትል ፕሬዚዳንት አቶ ተክለወይኒ አሰፋ እንዲሆኑ ማድረጉን ጭምር ተናግረዋል፡፡
ጥናቱ እንደ ክፍተት የተመለከተው
በኢትዮጵያ በተለይም በአሁኑ ወቅት ከተጨዋቾች ዝውውር ጋር ተያይዞ እየተሠራበት የሚገኘው አሠራር ለአገሪቱ እግር ኳስም ሆነ ለክለቦች፣ ተጨዋቾችና መንግሥት ምንም ዓይነት ጥቅም እያስገኘ እንዳልሆነ፣ ይልቁንም የክለቦችን የፋይናንስ አቅም እያዳከመ ስለመሆኑ፣ ለተጨዋቾችም ቢሆን በስማቸው እንደወሰዱ ተደርጎ የሚነገረው ገንዘብ ሙሉ በሙሉ የእነሱ እንዳልሆነ፣ በመሐል ለሕገወጥ ደላሎች እንደሚውል፣ በዚህ ዓይነቱ ሕገወጥ አሠራር በፕሮፌሽናል ስም ወደ ኢትዮጵያ የሚመጡ ተጨዋቾች ሳይቀር የፊርማ ገንዘብ ወስደው የጠፉ እንዳሉ፣ በፕሮፌሽናል ስም የሚመጡት ብዙዎቹ ተጨዋቾች የችሎታቸው ጉዳይ ጥያቄ እያስነሳ መሆኑ፣ ተጨዋቾች ከደመወዝ ይልቅ ትኩረት ሰጥተው የሚከራከሩት ለፊርማ ተብሎ ስለሚሰጣቸው ገንዘብ መሆኑ፣ ገንዘቡን ከወሰዱ በኋላ ለክለባቸው ተገቢውን አገልግሎት እንደማይሰጡ፣ ክለቦች የቅጣት ዕርምጃ እንውሰድ ቢሉ እንኳን የተጨዋቾች ወርሃዊ ክፍያ ከሁለትና ሦስት ሺሕ ብር ስለማይበልጥ ተጫዋቾች የሚጣልባቸውን የቅጣት ውሳኔ በፀጋ እንደሚቀበሉት፣ ክለቦች ታዳጊዎችን አሳድገው ማግኘት የሚገባቸውን ጥቅም ማሳጣቱ፣ በዚህም ክለቦች ለታዳጊና ለወጣት ተጨዋቾች የሚሰጡት ትኩረት እያነሰ መምጣቱና እንደዚህ ዓይነት የዝውውር ሥርዓት በየትኛውም አገር አለመኖሩ ሲጠቀስ፣ ሌላውና ትልቁ ነገር በአንድ የውድድር ዓመት ለተጨዋቾች ዝውውር በፕሪሚየር ሊግ ክለቦች ብቻ 140 ሚሊዮን ብር ቢንቀሳከስ መንግሥት ከዚህ ገንዘብ ውስጥ 42 ሚሊዮን ብር የሚያጣ ስለመሆኑም ጭምር ክፍተት ተብሎ መወሰዱን አቶ ገዛኸኝ አስረድተዋል፡፡
ረቂቅ ደንቡን አስመልክቶ ሪፖርተር ያነጋገራቸው ሌሎች የፕሪሚየርና ብሔራዊ ሊግ ክለቦች፣ ሰነዱ በአብዛኛው የሚደገፍ ጎን እንዳለው፣ ሆኖም ደንቡን ክለቦች በአንድ ቀን ያውም በፕሮጀክተር በመታገዝ እንዲመለከቱ ተደርጎ ወደ ሕጋዊ መመርያነት ይለወጥ መባሉ አግባብ እንደልሆነ፣ ከዚህ ይልቅ ሰነዱ ቀድሞ ለክለቦች እንዲደርሳቸው ተደርጎ ክለቦችም ግብረ መልሶቻቸውን ይዘው መጥተው እንዲወያዩበት ቢደረግ የበለጠ ተዓማኒነት ያለው የዝውውር መመሪያ ይሆን እንደነበር ነው ያስረዱት፡፡ በተጨማሪም እንደ ማሳያ የተነሳው በውድድር ዓመቱ በብሔራዊ ሊግ እየተወዳደረ የሚገኘው የሐረር ሲቲ ክለብ ለያዛቸው 25 ተጫዋቾች፣ ለአንዳቸውም የፊርማ በሚል ገንዘብ አለመክፈሉና ሁሉንም ተጫዋቾች ያስፈረማቸው በወርሃዊ ክፍያ መሆኑን ነው፡፡ ክለቡም ተጫዋቾች ከሚያገኙት ጥቅም ተገቢውን የመንግሥት የሥራ ግብር እንደሚከፍል ጭምር ተነግሯል፡፡ 
ሊሻሻል የሚገባው የረቂቅ ሰነዱ ይዘት 
ጥር 12 ቀን 2007 ዓ.ም. በካፒታል ሆቴል በተደረገው ውይይት ላይ ከፕሪሚየር ሊግ ክለቦች 11፣ ከብሔራዊ ሊግ ክለቦች ደግሞ 42 ተገኝተዋል፡፡ በውይይቱ ያልተሳተፉ የፕሪሚየር ሊግ ክለቦች ቅዱስ ጊዮርጊስ፣ ደደቢትና ሲዳማ ቡና ሲሆኑ፣ ከብሔራዊ ሊግ ደግሞ ያልተገኙት በጠቅላላው 42 ናቸው፡፡ 
ረቂቅ ሰነዱ ምንም እንኳ በተለያዩ አገሮች የተጨዋቾች ደረጃና የዝውውር ሥርዓቱን አስመልክቶ የሚሠራባቸውን መመሪያዎች በአስረጂነት የተጠቀመ ቢሆንም፣ ከአገሪቱ ሕገ መንግሥትም ሆነ የክለቦችን መብቶች የሚጋፉ አንዳንድ አንቀፆች መካተታቸውን የሚገልጹ አሉ፡፡
ከእነዚህ ውስጥ የፕሮፌሽናል ተጨዋቾች ዝውውር በሚለው ሥር በአንቀጽ 13 በንዑስ አንቀጽ 4.5 እንደሚገልጸው፣ ‹‹አንድ ተጨዋችና አንድ ክለብ በሚያደርጉት የዝውውር የውል ስምምነት ውስጥ የጊዜ ገደቡን ወይም መጠን በስምምነት ሊወስኑ ይችላሉ፡፡ ነገር ግን የውሉ ዘመን ከአንድ ዓመት ማነስ ወይም ከአምስት ዓመት መብለጥ የለበትም፤›› በሚል የተቀመጠው ተገቢ እንዳልሆነ፣ ይህም በክለቡና በተጨዋቹ የሚወሰን እንጂ አስገዳጅ ሊሆን እንደማይገባውና መታየት እንዳለበት ይጠይቃሉ፡፡ 
የውጭ አገር ተጨዋቾችን ዝውውር አስመልክቶ በአንቀጽ 14 ንዑስ አንቀጽ 1.7 እንደተመለከተው፣ አንድ ክለብ ሦስት የሚሆኑ የውጭ አገር ተጨዋቾችን ለክለቡ እንዲጫወቱ ማስመዝገብ እንደሚችል በደንብ መገደቡ አግባብነት የሌለው መሆኑ፣ ምክንያቱም የአገሪቱ ክለቦች በየዓመቱ በአህጉራዊው ውድድር ላይ ማለት በአፍሪካ ክለቦች ሻምፒዮናና በአፍሪካ ኮንፌዴሬሽን ዋንጫ ላይ የሚሳተፉ ሊኖሩ ስለሚችሉ፣ ጨዋታውም በፊፋ ሕግና ደንብ መሠረት የውጭ ተጨዋቾችን አዘዋውረው ከሚያጫውቱ አገሮች ጋር በመሆኑ በኢትዮጵያ በሦስት መወሰኑ ተገቢ እንዳልሆነ ሊጤን እንደሚገባው ያሳስባሉ፡፡ 
የውሰት ዝውውር በሚለው ሥር በአንቀጽ 16 በንዑስ አንቀጽ 7፣ ‹‹አንድ ተጨዋች ከአንድ ክለብ ወደ ሌላ ክለብ በትውስት በሚዛወርበት ወቅት ቀደም ሲል ከነበረበት ክለብ ያገኝ የነበረው ጥቅማ ጥቅም አይቀንሱበትም፣ ወይም ቀሪ አይሆንበትም፤›› የሚለው በሕግ ፊት ተጨዋቹ ከሁለቱም ክለቦች ተጠቃሚ ይሆናል የሚለውን ትርጉም ስለሚይዝ ሊስተካከል እንደሚገባውም ይገልጻሉ፡፡
በክፍል አምስት የወጣት ተጨዋቾች ተገቢነት፣ ምዝገባ፣ መብቶችና ግዴታዎች በሚለው፣ አንቀጽ 17 በንዑስ አንቀጽ 1.2 እንደተመለከተው፣ ዕድሜው ከ15 እስከ 17 ዓመት የሆነ ወጣት ከ17 ዓመት በታች የወጣቶች የሻምፒዮና ውድድሮች ተመዝግቦ መጫወት እንደሚችል ይገልጻል፡፡ ይህ ማለት በቅርቡ ዕድሜያቸው ከ17 ዓመት በታች የአፍሪካ ወጣቶች ሻምፒዮና የተጫወተው የኢትዮጵያ ወጣት ብሔራዊ ቡድን ላይ የደረሰው ዓይነት ችግር የሚፈጥር በመሆኑ ማሻሻያ ሊበጅለት እንደሚገባ፣ እዚሁ ላይ በአንቀጽ 17 ንዑስ አንቀጽ 1.3 ዕድሜው 18 እና ከዚያ በላይ የሆነው ወጣት ተጨዋች በአዋቂዎች ውድድር ተመዝግቦ መጫወት አይችልም የሚለው የሚወሰነው በተጫዋቹ አቅምና ችሎታ እንጂ በደንብ ሊሆን እንደማይገባው፣ ለዚህም ብራዚላዊው ሮናልዶ ዳሲልቫ፣ አርጀንቲናዊውን ሊዮኔል መሲ እና ሌሎችም በርካታ ተጨዋቾች በ18 ዓመታቸው ለዋናው ብሔራዊ ቡድኖቻቸው መጫወት መቻላቸው በአስረጂነት ጠቅሰው፣ አንቀጹ መሻሻል እንዳለበትም ይጠቁማሉ፡፡ 
ከዚህ ውጪ የኢትዮጵያ እግር ኳስ ፌዴሬሽንና ክለቦች እንደነዚህ ዓይነቶቹን ደንብና መመሪያዎች በሚያወጡበት ወቅት ጉዳዩን ከሕግና መሰል ጉዳዮች ጋር አጣጥመው ማስኬድ የሚችሉ የሕግ ባለሙያዎችን ማካተት እንደሚገባቸው እነዚሁ ረቂቅ ደንቡን አስመልክቶ ሪፖርተር ያነጋገራቸው ባለሙያዎች ይገልጻሉ፡፡ ከዚህ ባለፈ ግን ረቂቅ ሰነዱን አስመልክቶ በአገሪቱ እየተደመጠ የሚገኘው ቅሬታና ትችት አግባብ አለመሆኑንም ያክላሉ፡፡
Ethiopia has averaged a 10.7% economic growth rate over the last 10 years, more than double the annual average of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, which was around 5.2%. However, despite having a huge potential to contribute to Ethiopia’s economy, the development of oil, gas, and mineral resources are not among the key drivers of the country’s growth. 
Although the country has geological potential for the discovery of new, sizeable oil, gas and mineral deposits, most of its extractive industry is still in its infancy stage. Currently, there is one large-scale gold mine in operation, while a growing number of large mining projects are under development and exploration for oil and natural gas is intensifying after significant discoveries in neighboring countries. Ethiopia also has an extensive and unique artisanal mining sector; the government estimates there are around 1 million miners, making it an important source of job creation, and an important source of foreign currency. 
Open Quotes
World Bank Group Washington, DC, 2014
Strategic Assessment of the Ethiopian Mineral Sector
  • Obtain good-quality geo-data and put in place an effective data management system: To to manage and plan for the industry, the government needs to know what is actually in the ground. Effective acquisition, maintenance and dissemination of geo-data can help to attract investment and can help governments to make informed decisions and negotiate more effectively. Currently, only 74% of Ethiopia is mapped at a low-quality scale.
  • Put in place an effective management system and a governance framework: This will ensure that the benefits are distributed as fair and widely as possible, and social and environmental risks are minimized:Ethiopia was admitted as a candidate country to the Global Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) in  March 2014,one step towards that goal.
  • Diversification of Ethiopia’s economy and facilitation of economic linkages to avoid heavy dependency on the resource wealth: The linkages that are being created between the potash and agricultural industries in the Afar Region is just one example of potential economic partnerships; supporting the production of potash fertilizers in order to increase small holder farmer’s crop production.
  • Balance short-term and long-term development priorities, and reinvest the resource wealth into productive investments including high-quality health and education
MOST POPULAR Source: www.worldbank.org
In 2012, the Ethiopian mining sector accounted for 19% of the country’s exports revenues- mainly from artisanally mined gold- while in comparison, coffee, Ethiopia’s largest export commodity, generated 26% in export revenues. Close Quotes
The report notes that resource wealth can potentially have a positive impact on the social and economic development of Ethiopia if the industry is developed and managed in a sustainable and transparent manner, following international good practices.
So what can Ethiopia do to ensure that its resource wealth contributes to sustainable development? The report highlights the following recommendations:
Past experiences of other resource-rich countries provide a roadmap that can inform Ethiopia’s decision-making as the government start to put institutions, policies and laws in place to ensure that resource wealth contributes to sustainable development. 
Developing the untapped potential of the extractive industry is not without its challenges, which include the possibility of increased corruption and the need to manage the potentially significant social and environmental impacts. Recognizing this, the WBG, along with other development partners, have joined together to support Ethiopia’s efforts to develop the industry in a clear and viable way.
 “As highlighted in the study, if well managed and well supported, the Ethiopian mineral sector has the potential to make a difference in the economic development of Ethiopia and to contribute to the poverty reduction agenda,” said Christian Moller, WBG lead economist. “This will require a strong public sector. As the World Bank Group, we are committed to contribute to this process.”
In October 2014, the WBG and the Ministry of Mines jointly organized the 2014 Ethiopia Extractive Industries Forum, one of the major recent initiatives. It was organized with support from other key partners such as the UNDP, the Australian Government, Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (Canada), UK Department for International Development (DFID), and the African Minerals Development Center (AMDC). The event, the first of its kind, was held to help raise awareness about opportunities and challenges in the extractive industry, as well as to share good practices for its sustainable management. It included a broad-based representation of stakeholders with about 120 participants from industry, government, development partners, and civil society.
 The forum also provided the opportunity to discuss the findings of the “Strategic Assessment of the Ethiopian Mineral Sector” study, which was jointly published by the Ministry of Mines and other development partners. The report represents the first comprehensive assessment of the Ethiopian mining industry, examining the primary opportunities and challenges for growth and transformation in mining, while also providing an initial analysis of policy options for Ethiopian decision makers.  
“In today’s global village the Ethiopian government by itself cannot overcome the challenges facing the mining sector,” said His Excellency Ato Tolosa Shagi, Minister of the Ministry of Mines, in his opening speech during the forum. “Therefore, we would like to underpin our co-operation with development partners and best performing countries in the areas of building up the indigenous expertise with more emphasis in regulating the mineral and oil and gas resources to properly administer contracts as we are dealing with nonrenewable natural resources.” 
The WBG is providing technical assistance to the Ethiopian government to support them in translating the recommendations of the report to build a competitive, predictable, and responsible strategy, legislative and institutional framework for the Oil, Natural Gas and Mining industry. This will allow the Ethiopian government to conclude better deals for the extraction on their oil and mineral resources in a way that maximizes the benefits to the country, reducing the risk of costly or politically difficult remediation at later stages. It is supported by the Extractive Industries Technical Advisory Facility (EI-TAF), a demand driven multi-donor trust fund. The EI-TAF will be launched in the beginning of 2015 and will help to structure extractive industry development projects and related policies. 
In 2013, I made my first trip to Ethiopia. Knowing a bit about the country’s economic circumstances, I fully expected the grim poverty that I’d later encounter. After all, like millions of Americans, I watched the devastating famine there unfold on television in the 1980s.
At the same time, Ethiopia has made great strides since then. Ethiopia halved the number of its undernourished people from 75 percent to 35 percent in two decades, according to the United Nations. Still, that 35 percent is considerable – the U.N.’s World Food Programme estimates that3.2 million Ethiopians need food relief assistance.
So imagine my surprise when I entered a restroom in a small town outside Addis, the capital, and found sensorized urinals – the kind that self-flush. I don’t normally notice urinals, but in Ethiopia, where electricity and indoor plumbing are unreliable at best, sensorized urinals catch your attention. To find something as relatively advanced as a sensorized machine in a small Ethiopian town doesn’t necessarily say much about the country; but it says a lot about the machine.
In particular, it illustrates the potential of sensors and how they could hold the key to significantly reducing the world’s hunger problem. Sensors are everywhere and in everything, at least in developed nations such as the United States. They’ve revolutionized our mobile phones, and are now powering the next wave of wearable tech devices. Sensors are the reason the automotive industry is poised to deliver a driverless car.
The best thing about sensors, aside from their potential? They’re dirt cheap. The average smartphone holds five to seven sensors that cost about $5 combined. In 2007, an accelerometer, which comes standard in all smartphones today, cost $7 — now it costs less than 50 cents. The steep price decline, which has been in place since the early 1990s, is a function of strong competition in the smartphone arena and the growing number of applications using sensor technology. But nothing mandates that sensors are for smartphones only.
Which brings us back to Ethiopia. Now that you see how cheap sensors are today, the notion that a small, dusty town in Ethiopia can afford a sensorized urinal doesn’t seem all that remarkable. But let’s take this one step further. Sensorized devices are multiplying across every sector of the economy. Heavy industry uses sensors to increase productivity. Airplanes employ sensors in their “fly-by-wire” systems. Physicians can prescribedigestible sensors to monitor and wirelessly transmit biometric data.
According to the Digital Universe report from the International Data Corporation, the total number of “connectable things” – everyday objects that can be linked to the Internet – in the world is around 200 billion. Of those, about 20 billion are actually wired and talking to the Internet right now. They’re able to do so through a network of roughly 50 billion sensors that track, monitor and feed data to those connected devices. And the IDC estimates that by 2020, the number of connected things will increase by 50 percent to 30 billion, while the network of sensors will number in the trillions.
So, what does this have to do with solving the global food crisis? There’s enough food in the world to feed every person on the earth, yet through a combination of inefficiencies, supply-chain obstacles and oppressive government regulation, hundreds of millions of people are undernourished. Indeed, many food shortages arise because of misallocation of information. Suppliers of food are unaware of shortages and unaware of market prices. I’ve heard stories of food rotting on African farms only miles away from desolate starvation.
Equipping food-supply material such as storage containers, warehouses and shelves with sensors allows us to know instantly the moment a shortage exists. And I mean instantly in the literal sense. With sensors, we don’t need to wait for a person to count hundreds of containers to realize that there won’t be enough food for the community –a time-consuming process that too often doesn’t happen anyway. Sensors help remove those layers of inefficiency, shortening data’s transmission chain, skipping potential inhibitors and triggering faster response times.
Let’s take it one step further. The rise of commercial drones removes perhaps the biggest obstacle for food supply efforts – the need to take food from point A to point B over treacherous roads. Drones are possible only because of sensors. While we are farther away from seeing the “Drone Delivery Age” than we are from equipping storage facilities with sensors, we’re closer than you might think.
Of course, it’s going to take time for this technology to filter down to the places that need it most – places such as Ethiopia and other impoverished nations. Yet when I worry that we aren’t moving fast enough, I remember that sensorized urinal in Ethiopia. The sensors are coming, and they have the power to solve some of our greatest humanitarian crises.