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Thursday, January 30, 2014

አዲስ አበባ ፣ ጥር 21 ፣2006 (ኤፍ.ቢ.ሲ) የኢትዮጵያ መንገዶች ባለሰልጣን  ከሞጆ -መቂ እና ከአርበር ረከቴ -ገለምሶ ያለውን የ113 ኪሎ ሜትር የአስፋልት መንገድ ግንባታ ለመጀመር የሚያስችለውን የጨረታ ሂደት ጀመረ።
የኢትዮጵያ መንገዶች ባለስልጣን ከሞጆ- ሀዋሳ ያለውን የፈጣን መንገድ ግንባታን በአራት ተቋራጮች ከፋፍሎ ለማሰራት አቅዷል።
ከሞጆ  እስከ መቂ፣ ከመቂ እስከ ዝዋይ ፣ ከዝዋይ እስከ አርሲነገሌ እና ከአርሲነገሌ   እስከ ሃዋሳ  ተብሎም መንገዱ ተከፋፍሏል።
ለነዚህ የመንገድ ፕሮጀክቶች የኢትዮጵያ መንግስት አራት ከሚሆኑ አለም አቀፍ አበዳሪ  ድርጅቶች በብድር ያገኘውን ከ173 ሚሊየን የአሜሪካን ዶላር በላይ በጀት ትናንት የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት አጽድቆታል።
በኢትዮጵያ መንገዶች ባለስልጣን የኮሚኒኬሽን ዳይሬክተር አቶ ሳምሶን ወንድሙ እንደሚሉት፥ ከነዚህ አራት የመንገድ ፕሮጀክቶች በቀዳሚነት ወደ ግንባታ ሂደት የሚገባው ከሞጆ- መቂ ያለው ነው።
56 ኪሎ ሜትር ርዝመት ላለው ለዚህ መንገድ የኢትዮጵያ መንግስት ከአፍሪካ ልማት ፈንድ ያገኘው ከ126 ሚሊየን የአሜርካን ዶላር በላይ የገንዘብ ብድር ትናንት የህዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ተቀብሎ አጽድቆታል።
የኢትዮጵያ መንገዶች ባለስልጣን የገንዘብ ብድሩ ከአበዳሪው መገኘቱን እንዳረጋገጠ፥ እስከሚጸድቅ ሳይጠብቅ ወደ ጨረታ ሂደት መገባቱን ነው አቶ ሳምሶን የተናገሩት።
ከመቂ - ሃዋሳ ያለውን መንገድ ለመገንባት የአለም ባንክ፣ የኮርያ መንግስትና የቻይና  ኤግዚም ባንክን  የመሳሰሉ  አበዳሪዎች ለፕሮጀክቱ ማስፈጸሚያ የሚሆን ገንዘብ ለመስጠት ይሁንታቸውን አሳይተዋል ብለዋል።
የሞጆ ­- ሃዋሳ የመንገድ ግንባታ ከነባሩ ሙሉ በሙሉ ሳይገናኝ ራሱን ችሎ የሚሰራ መሆኑንም ተናግረዋል።
የነዚህ መንገድ ግንባታ ከሃዋሳ - ሞያሌ በመገንባት ላይ ካለው መንገድ ጋር ተያይዞ ከጎረቤት ሃገር ኬንያ ጋር የሚኖርን ግንኙነት ይበልጥ ያቀላጥፈዋል ተብሎ የታመነበት ሲሆን፥  በነባሩ መንገድ በየጊዜው የሚከሰተውን የትራፊከ አደጋ  እና ሌሎች ተያያዥ ችግሮችን ያስቀራል ብለዋል።
218 ኪሎ ሜትር  ርዝመት ያለው የሞጆ ሀዋሳ  ፈጣን መንገድ በአጠቃላይ 13 ነጥብ 6 ቢሊዮን  ብር  ይፈጃል  ተብሎ  ተገምቷል።
በከተማዋ እና በኣከባቢያዋ የትራንስፖርት ኣገልግሎት የምሰጡት በሺዎች የምቆጠሩት ባለሶስት ጎማ ተሽከርካሪዎች ሰሞኑን እንደተለመደው የትራንስፖርት ኣገልግሎት በመስጠት ላይ ኣይደሉም።

የሃዋሳ ከተማዋ ነዋሪዎች ለወራንቻ ኢንፎርሜሽን ኔትዎርክ እንደተናገሩት፤ ኣገልግሎት በመስጠት ላይ ያሉትም የባዳጂ ታክሲዎች ቁጥር ጥቂት በመሆኑ የከተማዋ ነዋሪዎች የእለትተእለት ስራቸውን ተንቀሳቅሰው ለማከናዎን መቸገራቸውን ኣመልክተዋል።

በጉዳዩ ዙሪያ ወራንቻ ኢንፎርሜሽን ኔትዎርክ ያናገራቸው የባዳጂ ኣሽከርካሪዎች እንዳስረዱት፤ ለሃዋሳ ከተማ እና ለኣካባቢዋ ነዳጅ የማከፋፈል ኣገልግሎት በመስጠት ላይ ከምገኙት ከኣስር በላይ የነዳጅ ማዴያዎች መካከል ኣብዛኛዎቹ ቤንዚን ኣይሸጡም።

በኣጠቃላይ ከተማዋ ከሁለት የማይበልጡ ብቻ ቤንዚን በማደል ላይ ሲሆኑ፤ በእነዚህም ነዳጅ ማደያዎች የቤንዚህ ኣገልግሎት ፈላጊው እና ኣቅርቦቱ የተመጣጠነ ባለመሆኑ በርካታ ኣሽከርካሪዎች በረዥም ሰልፈ ጊዜያቸውን በማቃጠል ላይ በመሆናቸውን ተናግረዋል።

የነዳጅ ማደያዎቹ ሰራተኞች በበኩላቸው እንደምሉት ከሆነ፤ ቤንዚን የማደል ኣገልግሎት የማይሰጡት የቤንዚን እጥረት በመፈጠሩ ነው።



ነገር ግን ኣንዳንድ የከተማዋ ነዋሪዎች በሰጡት ኣስተያየት በኣገሪቱ ውስጥ የነዳጅ እጥረት እንደሌለ እየታወቀ ሳለ በሃዋሳ ከተማ ብቻ የነዳጅ እጥረት መከሰቱ ጉዳዩን በጥርጣሬ እንድመለከቱ እንዳደረጋቸው ጠቁመው፤ የምመለከተው የመንግስት ኣካል መፍትሄ እንድፈልግ ጥሪ ኣቅርበዋል። 
Large-scale clean energy projects shouldn't eclipse the urgent need to provide electricity to low-income and rural communities
Will Ethiopia's renewable energy project light up poor communities? Photograph: Rebecca Blackwell/AP

The 84 wind turbines erected just south of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia's capital, tower above an arid landscape of grassland and unpaved roads, inhabited mostly by small-scale farmers, who – along with 77% of population – lack access to electricity.
The Ashegoda wind farm, launched in November, will produce an estimated 400 GWh of electricity per year, and forms just one piece of the Ethiopian government's strategy to harness indigenous energyresources for development. When – and to what extent – the country's rural population will benefit depends on striking a balance between investing in new grid-connected generation and effective strategies for expanding access.
Ethiopia today stands at a crossroads. In 2012, it had the world's 12th fastest growing economy (pdf). Unlike many industrialised nations, however, Ethiopia has made clear that renewable energy will be a key economic driver, emphasising green growth and clean energy as integral to growth and transformation plan (pdf), a five-year strategy to reduce poverty and spur national development. Recognising electricity as a vital enabler of economic growth and human development, the plan aims to minimise the gap between demand and supply, increase per capita consumption, and generate power for export. Specifically, it sets goals to increase hydropower capacity from 2000 MW to 10,000 MW, double the number of electricity customers, and raise the national electrification rate to 75%. Although its energy transformation has only just begun, two factors critical to Ethiopia's early success are worth highlighting:

A diverse renewable energy portfolio

Diversification plays a critical role in reducing vulnerability, not only to supply disruptions and oil price hikes, but also to climate change.
Ethiopia is highly vulnerable to extreme weather variability, particularly erratic rainfall. According to a World Bank study (pdf), climate change will likely increase the frequency of both flooding and droughts in Ethiopia, posing a significant challenge to agriculture, infrastructure, and hydropower generation. Although hydro provides cheap baseload power, over-dependence on the resource can make a country more vulnerable to drought conditions. Ethiopia has committed to developing wind and solar alongside its massive hydropower plants as guarantors against power shortages, especially during the dry season, while investments in geothermal and biofuels complement the intermittent resources.

Committed government partners

Through investment and policy reform, the Ethiopian government has played a crucial role in these early accomplishments. The country currently has the third highest public investment rate in the world (pdf), financed through a combination of restrained government spending and increased borrowing. Although Ethiopia generally struggles to attract investment, renewable project developers have recently noted the government's willingness to facilitate co-operation. Prime ministerHailemariam Desalegn has said that trade and investment have a most lasting impact than traditional aid. The government also ratified an energy proclamation in November 2013 that has eased access for private investors. However, some have criticised the government's lack of policy support mechanisms, which would provide developers with a more solid framework and financial guarantee.

Renewable energy in sub-Saharan Africa

Despite its recent successes, Ethiopia's energy push has run up against several major challenges. The Grand Renaissance dam, for example,raises environmental, social, and geopolitical concerns. According to the Ethiopian Electric Power Corporation, approximately 700 farmers lost some or all of their land during construction and development, and some claim government compensation was inadequate. Egypt, meanwhile,worries that the dam will curtail its own water supply, harming agricultural production and reducing electricity output from the Aswan dam – widely considered a symbol of Egyptian achievement.
The greatest challenge, however, will be to ensure that Ethiopia's current focus on developing large-scale renewable generation projects does not eclipse the urgent need to expand electricity access in low-income and rural communities. Globally, energy access is considered crucial to reducing poverty and facilitating improvements in education, health, and economic productivity. Citing energy access as a prerequisite for achieving the millennium development goals, the United Nations has designed 2014-2024 the 'Decade of sustainable energy for all'.
Renewable energy development is gaining momentum throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Aside from hydro, however, much of the focus has been on technologies like small-scale solar for off-grid communities. In contrast, Ethiopia seems to indicate a potential shift towards utility-scale renewables. This large-scale approach – particularly when combined with Ethiopia's focus on electricity for export – raises crucial questions about the future of electricity access. Even where people do have access, it can often be unaffordable or unreliable. A strategy that combines the kind of large-scale investment seen recently in Ethiopia with small-scale and distributed generation approaches – such as microgrids – could help ensure a more balanced result that will make Ethiopia a model forsustainable development.
Katie Auth is a research associate at Climate and Energy Worldwatch Institute
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As the economy thrives, we examine the plight of Ethiopians forced from their land to make way for foreign investors.


Just a few decades ago, Ethiopia was a country defined by its famines, particularly between 1983-1985 when in excess of half a million people starved to death as a consequence of drought, crop failure and a brutal civil war.
Against this backdrop, it is impressive that in recent years, Ethiopia has been experiencing stellar economic growth. The headline statistics are certainly remarkable: the country is creating millionaires faster than any other in Africa; output from farming, Ethiopia’s dominant industry, has tripled in a decade; the capital Addis Ababa is experiencing a massive construction boom; and the last six years have seen the nation’s GDP grow by a staggering 108 percent.
But it is not all positive news, because for all the good figures there are still plenty of bad ones.
Around 90 percent of the population of 87 million still suffers from numerous deprivations, ranging from insufficient access to education to inadequate health care; average incomes are still well below $1500 a year; and more than 30 million people still face chronic food shortages.
And while there are a number of positive and genuine reasons for the growth spurt - business and legislative reforms, more professional governance, the achievements of a thriving service sector - many critics say that the growth seen in agriculture, which accounts for almost half of Ethiopia’s economic activity and a great deal of its recent success, is actually being driven by an out of control ‘land grab', as  multinational companies and private speculators vie to lease millions of acres of the country’s most fertile territory from the government at bargain basement prices. 
At the ministry of agriculture in Addis Ababa, this land-lease programme is often described as a "win-win" because it brings in new technologies and employment and, supposedly, makes it easier to improve health care, education and other services in rural areas. 
"Ethiopia needs to develop to fight poverty, increase food supplies and improve livelihoods and is doing so in a sustainable way," said one official.
But according to a host of NGO’s and policy advocates, including Oxfam, Human Rights Watch and the Oakland Institute, the true consequences of the land grabs are almost all negative. They say that in order to make such huge areas available for foreign investors to grow foodstuffs and bio-fuels for export - and in direct contravention of Ethiopia’s obligations under international law - the authorities are displacing hundreds of thousands of indigenous peoples, abusing their human rights, destroying their traditions, trashing the environment, and making them more dependent on food aid  than ever before.
"The benefits for the local populations are very little," said renowned Ethiopian sociologist Dessalegn Rahmato. "They’ve taken away their land. They’ve taken away their natural resource, because these investors are clearing the land, destroying the forest, cutting down the trees. The government claims that one of the aims of this investment was to enable local areas to benefit by investing in infrastructure, social services … but these benefits are not included in the contract. It's only left up to the magnanimity of the investor."
And those investors, he continued, are simply not interested in anything other than serving their own needs: "They can grow any crop they want, when they want it, they can sell in any market they want, whether it’s a global market or a local market. In fact most of them are not interested in the local markets.” 
He cited as an example a massive Saudi-owned plantation in the fertile Gambella region of south west Ethiopia, a prime target area for investors: "They have 10,000 hectares and they are producing rice. This rice is going to be exported to the Middle East, to Saudi Arabia and other places. The local people in that area don’t eat rice."
But the most controversial element of the government’s programme is known as 'villagisation' - the displacement of people from land they have occupied for generations and their subsequent resettlement in artificial communities.
In Gambella, where two ethnic groups, the Anuaks and the Nuers, predominate, it has meant tens of thousands of people have been forced to abandon a traditional way of life. One such is Moot, an Anuak farmer who now lives in a government village far from his home.
"When investors showed up, we were told to pack up our things and to go to the village. If we had decided not to go, they would have destroyed our crops, our houses and our belongings. We couldn't even claim compensation because the government decided that those lands belonged to the investors. We were scared … if you get upset and say that someone stole your land, you are put in prison. If you complain about being arrested, they will kill you. It's not our land anymore; we have been deprived of our rights."
Despite growing internal opposition and international criticism, the Ethiopian government shows no sign of scaling the programme back. According to the Oakland Institute, since 2008, an area the size of France has already been handed over to foreign corporations. Over the next few years an area twice that size is thought to be earmarked for leasing to investors.
So what does all this mean for the people on the ground? In Ethiopia – Land for Sale, filmmakers Veronique Mauduy and Romain Pelleray try and find out.

http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/peopleandpower/2014/01/ethiopia-land-sale-20141289498158575.html