Nomonanoto Show

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

አዲስ አበባ ፣ ሚያዚያ 22፣ 2006 (ኤፍ.ቢ.ሲየኢትዮጵያ ፕሪሚየር ሊግ በተለያዩ  ጨዋታዎች በዛሬው እለት ቀጥሏል።
በአዲስ አበባ ስታዲየም በተደረጉ ጨዋታዎች ፥  የሊጉ መሪ ቅዱስ ጊዮርጊስ አስራ አንደኛ ደረጃ ላይ ከሚገኘው ከመብራት ሀይል በ9 ሰዓት ተገናኝቶ 3 ለ 2 በሆነ ውጤት ረቷል።
በተመሳሳይ ኢትዮጵያ ንግድ ባንክ ከሲዳማ ቡና 11 ከ 30 ላይ ተገናኝተው  ፥ ጨዋታው በሲዳማ ቡና 2 ለ 1 አሸናፊነት ተጠናቋል። ።
በክልል ጨዋታዎች በደቡብ ደርቢ ሀዋሳ ከነማ አርባ ምንጭ ከነማን ፣ ቦዲቲ ላይ ወላይታ ዲቻ ኢትዮጵያ ቡናን በተመሳሳይ 1 ለ 0 በሆነ ውጤት  መርታት ችለዋል።
ደደቢት በበኩሉ በአበበ በቂላ ስታዲየም በወራጅ ቀጠና ላይ የሚገኘውን ሀረር ከተማን  በ10 ሰዓት አስተናግዶ 1 ለ 1 ተለያይቷል።

በአገሪቱ ለሚገኙ 23 ዋና ዋና ከተሞች የተዘጋጀው ካርታ በሚቀጥለው ወር ይጠናቀቃል

አዲስ አበባ ፣ ሚያዚያ 21 ፣ 2006 (ኤፍ.ቢ.ሲ.) በአገሪቱ ለሚገኙ 23 ዋና ዋና ከተሞች እየተሰራ ያለው መሰረታዊ ካርታ በሚቀጥለው ወር መጨረሻ እንደሚጠናቀቅ የኢትዮጵያ ካርታ ስራ ኤጀንሲ አስታወቀ።
የኤጀንሲው ዋና ዳይሬክተር አቶ ሱልጣን መሃመድ ዛሬ የኤጀንሲው 60ኛ አመት የምስረታ በዓል በተከበረበት ወቅት እንደተናገሩት ፥ ካርታ ከሚሰራላቸው 23 ከተሞች ውስጥ ባህርዳር ፣ መቀሌ ፣ አዳማ፣ አዋሳ ፣ ዲላ፣ ሆሳእና፣ ቢሾፍቱ፣ አሰላ፣ ሀረር ፣ ደሴና ጎንደር ይገኙበታል።
ከእነዚህ 23 ከተሞች በተጨማሪ የ68 አነስተኛ ከተሞች መሰረታዊ ካርታ በመሰራት ላይ መሆኑን ዋና ዳይሬክተሩ አስታውቀዋል።
ይህ የካርታ ስራ ፕሮጀክት በ30 ሚሊዮን ብር ወጪ የኢንፎርሜሽን መረብ ደህንነት ኤጀንሲ፣ የከተማ ልማት ቤቶች ኤጀንሲ ሚኒስቴር እንዲሁም በካርታ ስራ ኤጀንሲ የተሰራ ሲሆን ፥ ይህም በአገር አቅም የተሰራ የመጀመሪያ ፕሮጀክት ያደርገዋል።
የከተሞቹ ካርታ ሥራ ሲያልቅ የሌሎች እንደሚጀመር የገለጹት ዋና ዳይሬክተሩ ፥ በቀጣይ አመታት ሀገሪቱ ዘመናዊ የመሬት አስተዳደር እንደሚኖራት ተናግረዋል።
ካርታዎች በሳተላይት፣ በአየር ፎቶግራፍ እንዲሁም በምድር ቅየሳ የሚሰሩ ሲሆን የከተሞቹ ካርታ በአየር ፎቶግራፍ በከፍተኛ ጥራት የተሰሩ መሆናቸውም ተመልክቷል።
በተያያዘ የኤጀንሲው 60ኛ አመት ምስረታ በአል ከዛሬ ጀምሮ ለተከታታይ 3 ቀናት በፓናል ውይይት፣ በኤግዚቪሽን፣ በሙዚየም ምረቃና በሌሎች ዝግጅቶች ''አስተማማኝ የጂኦ ስፓሽያን መረጃ ለዘላቂ ልማት'' በሚል መሪ ቃል ይከበራል።
በዛሬው ዕለትም የተቋሙን የ60 ዓመታትን ጉዞ የሚዘክር ሙዚየምና ኤግዝቤሽን በገንዘብና ኢኮኖሚ ልማት ሚኒስትር ዴኤታ አቶ አህመድ ሽዴ ተመርቆ ተከፍቷል፡፡

Tuesday, April 29, 2014


Sera: Traditionalism or Living Democratic Values?
A Case Study of the Sidama in Southern Ethiopia

Øyvind Aadland




Read more @ http://books.google.com.pe/books?hl=en&lr=&id=fYiPXWEg6PgC&oi=fnd&pg=PA5&dq=sidama+development+research&ots=oBqXkJqtsc&sig=ZjZ94ssyNFCmV6ImZZjBLTB-E6w#v=onepage&q&f=false

State Department Daily Briefing regarding Secretary Kerry’s visit to Ethiopia

State Department Daily Briefing regarding Secretary Kerry’s visit to Ethiopia
QUESTION: I have a question regarding Secretary Kerry’s to visit Ethiopia.
MS. PSAKI: Sure.
QUESTION: And according to the U.S. Department of – press release, Secretary Kerry will meet Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn and Foreign Minister Tedros Adhanom to discuss efforts to advance peace and democracy in the region, especially in Ethiopia.
MS. PSAKI: Mm-hmm.

QUESTION: My question is: What is the United States position in regards to human rights, democracy, as well as press freedom in Ethiopia?
And also, if you hear recently there is a report all over the internet that there are six bloggers and three journalists that are arrested ahead of Secretary visit to Ethiopia. Could you have some comment regarding this?
MS. PSAKI: Sure, I can. We are aware that six independent bloggers and three independent journalists were detained by Ethiopian police April 25th through 26th. We urge the Government of Ethiopia to expeditiously review the cases of these detainees and promptly release them. We have raised these concerns on the ground directly with the Government of Ethiopia.
And we, of course, reiterate our longstanding concern about the abridgment of the freedom of press and the freedom of expression in Ethiopia, and urge the Government of Ethiopia to fully adhere to its constitutional guarantees. And certainly while the Secretary is there as part of his trip to Africa, he often raises, at every opportunity, issues surrounding human rights, whether it’s media freedoms or equal treatment, freedom of speech, and I expect that will be the case this time as well.

Question on Ethiopia
Question on Ethiopia - Fast Forward to 32:56 Minute
Nazret
 By Admasu Belay

#3. Will you stand with our activists and journalists in prison to promote democracy in Ethiopia?


US Secretary of State John Kerry is expected to make a visit to Ethiopia next week. All of us Ethiopians worldwide are hoping such a trip will not reward and not give legitimacy to the TPLF one-party dictatorship. But this visit can also be a good opportunity for the voice of the people to be heard. Dear US Secretary of State John Kerry, as taxpaying American citizens & residents as well as citizens of the free world, we Ethiopians worldwide urge you to address the following three important questions during your trip to Ethiopia.
#1. Will US continue to support the apartheid system and ethnic cleansing in Ethiopia?
After the South Africa apartheid regime ended, America said never again! But today the US has been silent while the TPLF regime practices ethnic segregation in Ethiopia. The US embassy in Addis Ababa comments about democracy but never about the apartheid system. Today millions of Ethiopians are being removed and dislocated from their homes in one region to another in the name of “ethnic federalism.” This apartheid system was first created by the TPLF and OLF to divide and rule Ethiopians. Most of all, this “ethnic federalism” has denied the human rights of mixed Ethiopians who are born from two or more ethnicity. These millions of Ethiopians are only Ethiopians and they do NOT belong to any one ethnic group as they are born from multiple ethnicity. These millions of mixed Ethiopians are currently under ethnic cleansing as we speak! They are forced to deny their identity or face death or marginalization. Can you imagine Irish Americans being kicked out of Nebraska or Wisconsin just because they are not German-Americans? Can you imagine mixed multiracial Americans being second-class citizens with no place to call home? Such grace is happening in Ethiopia in the 21st century. Before another Rwanda happens, the United States should take action and stand for the survival and human right of mixed Ethiopians.
#2. Will USA continue to finance the Egyptian military against peace in Africa?
This is an old issue. The ongoing US policy of paying billions of dollars worth military aid to Egypt has destabilized the whole east Africa. Most of the weapons sent to Egypt end up in Somalia and Sudan to arm militants and terrorists. Your own UN-led weapons investigations have revealed that the Egyptian military trained and armed terrorists in Somalia. Egypt does this because it wants to destabilize the Nile river’s upstream nations as well as to place a pro-Cairo puppet islamic fundamentalist regime in Mogadishu. Most of all, the US massive military aid to Egypt has tilted the balance of power in Africa, making Egypt a lawless bully when it comes to Nile river basin negotiations. This US policy will become the most destabilizing and most disasterous US policy of all in Africa unless it is stopped as soon as possible.
#3. Will you stand with our activists and journalists in prison to promote democracy in Ethiopia?
We Ethiopians are becoming hopeless and tired of the ongoing foreign policy of supporting “stability” over democracy. Since Former US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice admitted the failure of US policy favoring dictatorship for the sake of stability, nothing still has changed in American approach to democracy. Since then, thousands of pro-democracy Ethiopians have died fighting for change but they got no support from the West. Tens of thousands of Ethiopian Americans voted for the election of President Barack Obama hoping for “change” but we have seen none of it. Where is our campaign promise? Where is change? Now is the time. During your trip, we urge you Mr Secretary, to finally stand on the right side of history and support democracy in Ethiopia.
Note: Everytime a high ranking US official plans a visit to Ethiopia, the TPLF dictatorship takes hostages for negotiation. That is what the shameful TPLF did again by imprisoning six journalists this week. http://advocacy.globalvoicesonline.org/2014/04/26/six-members-of-blogging-collective-arrested-in-ethiopia/
We urge You Mr Secretary not to fall for another TPLF trap! Instead of negotiating for the recent TPLF hostages, we ask you to negotiate for the freedom of the whole Ethiopian population! 90 million people are TPLF’s hostages. We have thousands of other journalists, our young leaders like Andualem Arage, many Oromo parliamentarians and opposition politicians suffering in prison for years! We want real long-term change with independent institutions and free election board in Ethiopia. We want the Ethiopian military to be independent and representative of all Ethiopia, not just represent one ethnic group. We want you to guarantee us that the next national election will be monitored by thousands of American observers in every polling and counting stations in Ethiopia. After over 20 years of dictatorship in Ethiopia, it is time for the United States to take concrete steps to support Ethiopian democracy. We don’t want just words, we want words followed by action.
The relationship between Ethiopia and the United States is long and historical. Like the US, Ethiopia is multiethnic, multi religious and a country of immigrants who gradually settled to present day central Ethiopia several hundreds years ago. The people of the two countries will always share the same values and have common interests. In this time of need, We are confident that you will stand with the people of Ethiopia and be on the right side of history.
Source@http://www.abugidainfo.com/index.php/22437/

Monday, April 28, 2014

በአሳምነው ጎርፉ
ያሳለፍናቸው ቀናት ኢትዮጵያዊያን የክርስትና እምነት ተከታዮች ዓብይ ፆምን ተሻግረው የፋሲካ በዓልን በድምቀት ያከበሩበት ነው፡፡ በዓል ሲመጣ ደግሞ ሐበሻ ‹‹እንደ ቤቴ›› ሳይሆን ‹‹እንደ ጎረቤቴ›› በሚል ብሂል አቅሙን አሟጦና
ተበድሮ ለማድመቅና ‹ለመደሰት› እንደሚዳክር ይታወቃል፡፡ በተለያዩ መገናኛ ብዙኃን እንደተዘገበውና በየአካባቢው ተዟዙሬ እንደተመለከትኩት ዘንድሮ የቁም እንስሳት፣ የቤት ዕቃውና ማስዋቢያው ብቻ ሳይሆን ከስኒ ረከቦት ሥር የሚጎዘጎዘው ቄጠማ ሳይቀር በፍጥነት ዋጋቸው አሻቅቦ ታይቷል፡፡ ተርፎት በቅንጦት ለሚኖረው ምንም ባይመስለውም፣ ብዙኃኑ ሕዝብና መካከለኛ ላይ ያለው ወገን የመግዛት አቅም አጥቶ ሲንፈራገጥ ታይቷል፡፡ በተለይ የደመወዝተኛው ችግር ደግሞ ይጎላል፡፡ እንግዲህ ይኼ ጉዳይ ነው በዚህ ርዕስ ላይ አንዳች ነገር ማለት እንደሚገባ ያነሳሳኝ፡፡ 
የኢኮኖሚ ዕድገቱ የገቢ መመጣጠን አሳይቷልን? 
በዚህ አገር የኢኮኖሚ ዕድገት መኖሩን የሚክድ ካለ ጤነኝነቱ ያጠራጥራል፡፡ ስለዚህ ወደ ጉዳዬ ልግባ፡፡ የልማታዊ መንግሥት ፍልስፍና ተከታዮች ‹‹ኒዮ ሊብራል›› የሚባለውን የነፃ ገበያ ኢኮኖሚ (የገበያ አክራሪነትም ይባላል) የሚተቹበት አንድ አባባል አለ፡፡ ‹‹የገቢ አለመመጣጠን በአብዛኛው የሚስተዋለው ባለሀብቶች ፖለቲካውን በጨበጡባቸው አገሮች ነው፡፡ ባለፀጋ ፖለቲከኞች ለመሠረታዊ የኅብረተሰብ አገልግሎቶች ማለትም ለትምህርት፣ ለመኖሪያ ቤቶች ግንባታ፣ ለሕዝብ ትራንስፖርትና ለመሳሰሉት በቂ በጀት ለመመደብ ፈቃደኛ ስለማይሆኑ የታክስ ምጣኔውን በመቀነስ ጫናቸውን ከላያቸው ላይ ያራግፋሉ፤›› የሚል ነው፡፡
ይህን የሚቃወሙት የፖለቲካ ተንታኞች ግን የመንግሥትን በመሠረታዊ ልማቶች ላይ መሳተፍ አጥብቀው ባይቃወሙትም (በተለይ ዛሬ ዛሬ) ሁሉንም ለገበያው በነፃነት መልቀቅን ተገቢ ነው ይላሉ፡፡ ምንም ተባለ ምን ኢትዮጵያ ውስጥ ባለፉት አሥር ዓመታት የኢኮኖሚ ዕድገት ሲመዘገብ መንግሥት በተለይ በመሠረተ ልማቶች ማለትም በመንገድ በኤሌክትሪክ ኃይል አቅርቦት፣ በትምህርትና በጤና ተቋማት፣ በቤቶች ልማት ፕሮጀክቶችና መሰል ሥራዎች አጠናክሮ ማከናወኑን ሊዘነጋ አይችልም፡፡ መንግሥት የውስጥ ገቢውን ብቻ ሳይሆን ትላልቅ ብድሮችና ዕርዳታዎችን አሰባስቦ ሥራ ላይ እያዋለም ይገኛል፡፡ ከእነዚህ ሥራዎች ጋር በተያያዘ በሚፈጠሩ የሥራ ዕድሎችም በሚሊዮን የሚቆጠሩ ወጣቶችና ሴቶች የቀን ሥራ (ዝቅተኛ ገቢም ቢሆን) የሥራ ዕድል ተፈጥሮላቸዋል፡፡ ከዕድገትና ትራንስፎርሜሽን ዕቅዱ አንፃር ብዙ የተባለለትን ያህል ባይሆንም የግል ባለሀብቶችም እንቅስቃሴም እየታየ ነው፡፡ 
የሐዋሳ ዩኒቨርሲቲ የኢኮኖሚክስ መምህር የሆኑት (ስማቸው እንዲገለጽ አልፈለጉም) በአገሪቱ ባለሁለት አኃዝ ተከታታይ የኢኮኖሚ ዕድገት የመጣው ዜሮ ከሚባል ዝቅተኛ ደረጃ በመነሳት ነው ይላሉ፡፡ ከአሥር ዓመት በፊት ከአፍሪካ የመጨረሻ የነፍስ ወከፍ ገቢ ያላት አገር፣ በሕዝብ ብዛትና በቆዳ ስፋት ሲመዘን እዚህ ግባ የማይባል ጠቅላላ የአገር ውስጥ ምርት (GDP) ከ30 ቢሊዮን ዶላር በታች ነበር የምታገኘው፡፡ ከዚህ ዝቅተኛ ደረጃ በፍጥነት ለመውጣት አሁን ያለው ቁርጠኝነት መታየቱ ብቻ ሳይሆን፣ በብዙዎቹ አገሮችም ተረጋግቶ ማልማት ከተቻለ ይኼን ያህል መራመድ አይዳግትም ይላል፡፡ ይህ ማለት ግን የመንግሥትን ጥረት ማንኳሰስ እንዳልሆነ በመጠቆም፡፡
ተጨማሪ ለማንበብ ሪፖተር ጋዜጣ
አዲስ አበባ ሚያዝያ 19/2006የ2015ቱ የአፍሪካ ዋንጫ የማጣሪያ ምድብ ድልድል ይፋ ሆነ።
ኢትዮጵያ በምድብ ሁለት ከማሊና አልጄሪያ ጋር ስትደለደል ከማላዊ፣ ቻድ፣ ሳኦቶሜና ቤኒን መካከል አሸናፊው ቡድን ምድቡን የሚቀላቀል ይሆናል።
በምድብ አንድ ያለፈው የአፍሪካ ዋንጫ አሸናፊ ናይጄሪያ፣ ከደቡብ አፍሪካና ሱዳን ጋር የተደለደለች ሲሆን ናሚቢያ፣ ኮንጎ፣ ሊቢያና ርዋንዳ በሚያደርጉት የእርስ በርስ ጨዋታ አሸናፊው ቡድን ምድቡን ይቀላቀላል።
ቡርኪና ፋሶ፣ አንጎላና ጋቦን በምድብ ሦስት የተደለደሉ ሲሆን ላይቤሪያ፣ ሌሴቶ፣ ኮሞሮስና ኬንያ እርስ በርስ በሚያደረጉት ጨዋታ አሸናፊው ቡድን ይቀላቀላቸዋል።
ምድብ አራት ኮትዲቯር፣ ካሜሩንና፣ የኮንጎ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክን ሲያገናኝ ከስዋዚላንድ፣ ሴራሊዮን፣ ጋምቢያና ሲሸልስ የጨዋታወ አሸናፊ ቡድን የሚቀላቀላቸው ይሆናል።
በምድብ አምስት ጋና፣ ቶጎና ጊኒ በቀጥታ ሲደለደሉ ማዳጋስካር፣ ሞሪታንያ፣ ኢኩአቶሪያል ጊኒና ኡጋንዳ በሚያደረጉት ጨዋታ አሸናፊው ቡድን  ምድቡን ይቀላቀላል።
በምድብ ስድስት ዛምቢያ፣ ኬፕቨርድና ኒጀር በቀጥታ የተደለደሉ ሲሆን የዚምባብዌ፣ ታነዛንያ፣ ሞዛምቢክና ደቡብ ሱዳን አሸናፊ ምድቡን ይቀላቀላል።
ቱኒዚያ፣ ግብጽና ሴኔጋል በምድብ ሰባት ሲደለደሉ ከብሩንዲ፣ ቦትስዋና፣ ከማዕከላዊ አፍሪካ ሪፐብሊክና ከጊኒ ቢሳዎ መካከል አሸናፊው ቡድን ምድቡን የሚቀላቀል ይሆናል።
የየምድቡ አሸናፊና በሁለተኛ ደረጃ የሚያጠናቅቁ፣ አንድ ምርጥ ሦስተኛ ቡድንና አሰተናጋጇ ሞሮኮን  ጨምሮ በድምሩ 16 ቡድኖች በ2015ቱ የአፍሪካ ዋንጫ የሚፋለሙ ይሆናል።

ጽሁፉ ተገኘ ከ ኢዜኣ

 በእንዳለ ደበላ ሀዋሳ ኢዜኣ ተጻፈ

ሂውማን ፓፒሎማ ቫይረስ የማህጸን በር ካንሰር በሽታ መንስኤ ነው። ቫይረሱ የግብረ ስጋ ግንኙነት ማድረግ የጀመሩ ሴቶችን በቀላሉ የሚያጠቃ ነው።�
በቫይረሱ የተጠቃች አንዲት ሴት ምንም ዓይነት ምልክት ሳታሳይ ከ10 እስከ 20 ዓመት ድረስ ልትቆይ ትችላለች።
አንዲት በዚህ ቫይረስ የተጠቃች ሴት ሰውነቷ በሽታን የመከላከል አቅም በሚዳከምበት ጊዜ ቫይረሱ ወደ ማህጸን ካንሰር የመቀየር እድሉ የሰፋ ይሆናል።
ይህ ቫይረስ ወደ ካንሰርነት ከተቀየረ ምንም መድሃኒት የሌለው በመሆኑ በማህጸን በር ካንስረ የተያዘች ሴት መጨረሻዋ ሞት ይሆናል። ይህን የሞት አደጋ ለማስቀረት ደግሞ ያለው ብቸኛ አማራጭ ማንኛዋም የግብረ ስጋ ግንኙነት የጀመረች ሴት ቅድመ የማህጸን በር ካንሰር ምርመራ በማድረግ ምልክቱ ከተገኘባት ህክምና በመውሰድ ቫይረሱ ወደ ካንሰርነት ደረጃ እንዳያድግ ማድረግ ብቻ ነው።
ብዙዎቻችን የህመም ስሜት ካልተሰማን በስተቀር የቅድመ ጤና ምርመራ ህክምና የማድረግ ልምድ አላዳበርንም። የሚሰማን የህመም ስሜትም ቢኖር እንኳን ካልተባባሰና ጉዳቱ ከፍ ካላለ በስተቀር በሀኪም ለመታየት አንፈልግም።
የሚሰማን ህመም ተባብሶና ከፍተኛ ደረጃ ሲደርስ መንቀሳቀስ ሲያቅተን በድጋፍ ወደ ህክምና ማዕከላት እንሄዳለን።
በዚህም ሳቢያ በቀላሉ ሊድን የሚችለው ህመም ብዙ ስቃይ አብዝቶብንና ኪሳችንን አራቁቶ ጉዳታችንን በአካልም ሆነ በኢኮኖሚ ያባብሰዋል።
ይህ ሁሉ ከመሆኑ በፊት ግን ቢያንስ በዓመት አንደ ጊዜ አጠቃላይ የጤና ምርመራ ማድረግ እንዳለብን የህክምና ባለሙያዎች ይመክራሉ።
የህክምና ባለሙያዎችን ምክር የሚሰሙ ግን ጥቂቶች ናቸው። እነዚህ ጥቂቶች በህክምና ባለሙያዎች የሚሰጠውን ምክር ሰምተው ተግባራዊ ማድረግ በመቻላቸው በሽታ አይደፍራቸውም።
ለዛሬ ጽሁፌ መነሻ ምክንያት የሆነኝ በቀላሉ መዳን የሚችለውና በሂውማን ፓፒሎማ ቫይረስ ምክንያት የሚከሰተው የማህጸን በር ካንሰር ነው።
የማህጸን በር ካንሰር ማንኛዋም የግብረ ስጋ ግንኙነት ማድረግ የጀመረች ሴት ልትጠቃበት የምትችልበት በሽታ ነው።
በሽታው ምንም አይነት ምልክት ሳያሳይ ከአስር እስከ ሃያ ዓመታት በሰውነት ውስጥ መቆየት የሚችልና ወደ ካንሰርነት ደረጃ ከደረሰ መዳን የማይችል ገዳይ በሽታ መሆኑን የህክምና ባለሙያዎች ይገልጻሉ።
ለዚህ በሽታ የበለጠ የተጋላጭ የሆኑት ደግሞ የማህጸን በር ቅድመ ካንሰር ምርመራ በየጊዜው የማያደርጉ ሴቶች በለጋ ዕድሜያቸው የግብረስጋ ግንኙነት የጀመሩ ከተለያየ ወንዶች ጋር ግንኙነት የሚፈጽሙ ሴቶችና ከተለያየ ሴቶች ጋር የግብረስጋ ግንኙነት የሚፈጽም ወንድ ጓደኛ ያላቸው ሴቶች ዋነኛ ተጠቂዎች ናቸው።
በተጨማሪም በተለያየ ምክንያት በሽታ የመቋቋም ኃይላቸው የቀነሰና ኤች አይቪ ኤድስ ቫይረስ በደማቸው ያለባቸውና የሰውነት በሽታን የመከላከል አቅምን የሚቀንሱ መድኃኒቶች የሚወስዱና በቅርብ ቤተሰብ ውስጥ የማህጸን በር ካንሰር መኖርና ሲጋራ የሚያጨሱ ሴቶች የበለጠ ተጋላጭ ናቸው።
ኤች አይ ቪ/ኤድስ በደማቸው የሚገኝ ሴቶች በሂውማን ፓፒሎማ ቫይረስ የመያዝና ቫይረሱ በሰውነታቸው የመቆየት እንዲሁም ኢንፌክሽኑ ወደ ካንሰርነት የመለወጥ እድሉ ከፍተኛ ነው።
ወይዘሮ ዘነበች ትሮሬ የኤች አይ ቪ/ኤድስ ቫይረስ በደማቸው ከሚገኝባቸው የሀዋሳ ከተማ ነዋሪዎች መካከል አንዷ ናቸው።
በአንድ ወቅት በከፍተኛ ሁኔታ በመታመማቸው በአልጋ ላይ ከመዋላቸው ባለፈ አገግመው ሲነሱ ሙሉ አካላቸውን ለማንቀሳቀስ ተቸግረው በክራንች በመታገዝ ነበር መጠነኛ እንቅስቃሴ የሚያደርጉት።
ወ/ሮ ዘነበች የደረሰባቸውን የጤና ችግር ምንነት ለማወቅ ባደረጉት ምርመራ የኤች አይቪ ቫይረሱ በደማቸው እንዳለ በመታወቁ የቫይረሱን መጠን ለመቀነስ የሚያስችለውን መድሃኒት መውሰድ ይጀምራሉ።
መድሃኒቱን መውሰድ ከጀመሩ በኋላ ጤንነታቸው እየተስተካከለ በመምጣቱ ይጠቀሙበት የነበረውን ክራንች በመጣል ዛሬ በሞተር ሳይክል ከቦታ ቦታ በመንቀሳቀስ በኤድስ ሳቢያ ጉዳት የደረሰባቸውን ሰዎች በመርዳት ላይ ይገኛሉ።
ወ/ሮ ዘነበች ቫይረሱ በደማቸው ከመኖሩ ጋር በተያያዘ ለማህጸን በር ካንሰር አምጭው ለሂውማን ፓፒሎማ ቫይረስ ተጋላጭ መሆን አለመሆናቸውን ለማረጋገጥ ባደረጉት ምርመራ ከሂውማን ፓፒሎማ ቫይረስ ነጻ መሆናቸውን አረጋግጠዋል።
እንደሳቸው ገለጻ ኤች አይ ቪ ኤድስ በደማቸው ያለባቸው ወገኖች በማህጸን በር ካንሰር ከመጠቃታቸው አስቀድሞ የቅድመ ካንሰር ምርመራ ማድረግ እንዳለባቸው በማስተባበር እየሰሩ መሆኑን ገልጸዋል።
ቫይረሱ በደማቸው ያለባቸው ብቻ ሳይሆኑ ሁሉም ሴቶች የግብረስጋ ግንኙነት ማድረግ ከጀመሩበት ጊዜ አንስቶ በሂውማን ፓፒሎማ ቫይረስ የመጠቃት እድላቸው ከፍተኛ በመሆኑ የቅድመ ካንሰር ምርመራ ማድረግ አለባቸው ብለዋል።
ወ/ሮ ቀመሪያ ከድር በሀዋሳ ከተማ ነዋሪ ናቸው። በአንድ አጋጣሚ ሰዎች ስለ ማህጸን በር ካንሰር ሲያወሩ በመስማታቸው በውስጣቸው ፍራቻ ያድርና ምርመራ ለማድረግ ወደ ሀዋሳ ሪፈራል ሆስፒታል ያመራሉ።
ከቤታቸው ሲወጡ ተመርምረው ራሳቸውን ለማወቅ ቢሆንም ሆስፒታል ሲደርሱ ግን ፍራቻ ያድርባቸውና ተመልሰው ወደ ቤታቸው ይሄዳሉ ከሁለት ቀናት በኋላ በነጻ ይሰጥ የነበረው የማህጸን ካንሰር ቅድመ ምርመራ ፕሮግራም ከመጠናቀቁ አንድ ቀን አስቀድሞ ምርመራ ለማድረግ ዳግም ወደ ሆስፒታል በመሄድ ይመረመራሉ።
ምርመራው ከባድ መስሎኝ ነበር የሚሉት ወ/ሮ ቀመሪያ የነበረኝ ፍርሃት የተሳሳተ እንደነበር የተረዳሁት ከተመረመርኩ በኋላ ሲሆን በምርመራው የማህጸን ካንሰር በሽታ ምልክት በኔ ላይ በመገኘቱ ህክምናውን መከታተል እንዳለብኝና ህክምናውን በማድረግ ሙሉ በሙሉ ነጻ መሆን እንደምችል ተገልጾልኝ ህክምናውን በማድረግ በድጋሚ ታይቼ ነጻ መሆኔን ማወቅ በመቻሌ እፎይታ ተሰምቶኛል ይላሉ።
ዛሬ ባደረግኩት ህክምና ነጻ መሆኔ እስከ መጨረሻው ነጻ መሆን እንዳልሆነ ተገልጾልኝ ከአምስት አመት በኋላ ድጋሚ ምርመራ ማድረግ እንዳለብኝ ተገልጾልኝ ዛሬ ሌሎችን ምርመራ እንዲያደርጉ እያስተማርኩ ነው ብለዋል።
በሸካ ዞን የማሻ ከተማ ነዋሪ የሆነችው ወጣት ሀገሬ ደሳለኝ የወላይታ ሶዶ ከተማ ነዋሪዋ ወ/ሮ ሰብለወርቅ አባተና የሀዋሳ ከተማ ነዋሪዋ ወ/ሮ አለምኘት ግርማን በበሽታው ዙሪያ ያላቸውን ግንዛቤን በተመለከተ ባነጋገርኳቸው ወቅት እንዳሉት ስለበሽታው ብዙም ግንዛቤ እንደሌላቸውና ካንሰር ገዳይ በሽታ መሆኑን ከማወቅ ባለፈ አስቀድሞ በመመርመር መከላከል እንደሚቻል አያውቁም።
በሽታውን ለመከላከል የደቡብ ክልል ጤና ቢሮ ከአጋር ድርጅቶች ጋር  በመተባበር እየሰራ ይገኛል። ቢሮው ከፓዝ ፋይንደር ኢንተርናሽናል ጋር በመሆን ላለፉት ሶስት ዓመታት በይርጋለም ወላይታ ሶዶና በሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርሲቲ ሪፈራል ሆስፒታል የማህጸን በር ካንስር በሽታ የምርመራና ህክምና አገልግሎት ሲሰጥ ቆይቷል።
በእነዚህ ዓመታት በተከናወነ የምርመራና የህክምና አገልግሎት 2 ሺህ 444 ሴቶች ተመርምረው ከነዚህ ውስጥ የካንሰር ምልክት የተገኘባቸው 200 ሴቶች ታክመው መዳን ችለዋል።
ምልክቱ ተገኝቶባቸው ህክምና ያገኙ ሴቶች ከአንድ ዓመት ቆይታ በኋላ ተመልሰው ምርመራ የሚከናወንላቸው ሲሆን ያልተገኘባቸው ሴቶች ከአምስት ዓመት በኋላ ተመልሰው ምርመራ ማድረግ እንዳለባቸው ተገልጾላቸዋል።
በደቡብ ክልል አንድ ሚሊዮን 756 ሺህ 914 ሴቶች ለበሽታው ተጋላጭ ይሆናሉ ተብሎ ስለሚጠበቅና እነዚህን ሴቶች ከበሽታው ለመታደግ አገልግሎት አሰጣጡን ተደራሽ ለማድረግ እየተሰራ በመሆኑ ላለፉት ሶስት ዓመታት በሶስቱ ሆስፒታሎች ብቻ ይሰጥ የነበረው ህክምና በዲላ ጂንካ ጊዶሌ ተርጫ አርባምንጭ ሚዛን አማን ሆሳዕናና ቡታጅራ ሆስፒታሎች መሰጠት ተጀምሯል።
በሆስፒታሎቹ የሚሰጠው የምርመራና ህክምና አገልግሎት ቀላል ሲሆን ማንኛዋም የግብረስጋ ግንኙነት የጀመረች ሴት መመርመር እንደምትችልና የበሽታው ምልክት የተገኘባት ሴት ህክምናውን እዛው መጀመር የምትችልበት ነው።
የማህጸን በር ካንሰር ምልክት የተገኘባት ሴት በሽታው ወደ ካንሰርነት ደረጃ ከማደጉ በፊት በህክምና መዳን የሚቻል መሆኑን በማወቅ ሁሉም የግብረ ስጋ ግንኙነት የጀመሩ ሴቶች በተለይ እድሜያቸው ከ30 ዓመት በላይ የሆናቸው በሙሉ ቅድመ ምርመራ በማድረግ ራሳቸውን ከበሽታው ማዳን እንደሚችሉ ለመጠቆም እወዳለሁ። ቸር ይግጠመን።
9 Bloggers, Journalists Held Before US Official Arrives

The nine arrests signal, once again, that anyone who criticizes the Ethiopian government will be silenced. The timing of the arrests – just days before the US secretary of state’s visit – speaks volumes about Ethiopia’s disregard for free speech.
Leslie Lefkow, deputy Africa director
APRIL 28, 2014
(Nairobi) – The Ethiopian authorities should immediately release six bloggers and three journalists arrested on April 25 and 26, 2014, unless credible charges are promptly brought.

United States Secretary of State John Kerry, who is scheduled to visit Ethiopia beginning April 29, should urge Ethiopian officials to unconditionally release all activists and journalists who have been arbitrarily detained or convicted in unfair trials. The arrests also came days before Ethiopia is scheduled to have its human rights record assessed at the United Nations Human Rights Council’s universal periodic review in Geneva on May 6.

“The nine arrests signal, once again, that anyone who criticizes the Ethiopian government will be silenced,” said Leslie Lefkow, deputy Africa director. “The timing of the arrests – just days before the US secretary of state’s visit – speaks volumes about Ethiopia’s disregard for free speech.”

On the afternoon of April 25, police in uniform and civilian clothes conducted what appeared to be a coordinated operation of near-simultaneous arrests. Six members of a group known as the “Zone9” bloggers – Befekadu Hailu, Atnaf Berahane, Natnael Feleke, Mahlet Fantahun, Zelalem Kibret, and Abel Wabela – were arrested at their offices and in the streets. Tesfalem Weldeyes, a freelance journalist, was also arrested during the operation. Edom Kassaye, a second freelance journalist, was arrested on either April 25 or 26; the circumstances of her arrest are unclear but all eight individuals were apparently taken to Maekelawi Police Station, the federal detention center in Addis Ababa, the capital.

The police searched the bloggers and journalists’ offices and homes, reportedly with search warrants, and confiscated private laptops and literature. On April 26, another journalist, Asmamaw Hailegeorgis of Addis Guday newspaper, was also arrested and is reportedly detained in Maekelawi.

The detainees are currently being held incommunicado. On the morning of April 26, relatives were denied access to the detainees by Maekelawi guards, and only allowed to deposit food. 

Human Rights Watch released a report in October 2013 documenting serious human rights abuses, including torture and other ill-treatment,unlawful interrogation tactics, and poor detention conditions in Maekelawi against political detainees, including journalists. Detainees at Maekelawi are seldom granted access to legal counsel or their relatives during the initial investigation phase.

The Zone9 bloggers have faced increasing harassment by the authorities over the last six months. Sources told Human Rights Watch that one of the bloggers and one of the journalists have been regularly approached, including at home, by alleged intelligence agents and asked about the work of the group and their alleged links to political opposition parties and human rights groups. The blogger was asked a week before their arrest of the names and personal information of all the Zone9 members. The arrests on April 25, 2014, came two days after Zone9 posted a statement on social media saying they planned to increase their activism after a period of laying low because of ongoing intimidation.

A Human Rights Watch report in March described the technologies used by the Ethiopian government to conduct surveillance of perceived political opponents, activists, and journalists inside the country and among the diaspora. It highlights how the government’s monopoly over all mobile and Internet services through its sole, state-owned telecom operator, Ethio Telecom, facilitates abuse of surveillance powers.

Kerry is scheduled to meet with Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn and Foreign Minister Tedros Adhanom in Addis Ababa “to discuss efforts to advance peace and democracy in the region.” Kerry should strongly urge the Ethiopian government to end arbitrary arrests, release all activists and journalists unjustly detained or convicted, and promptly amend draconian laws on freedom of association and terrorism that have frequently been used to justify arbitrary arrests and political prosecutions. The Obama administration has said very little about the need for human rights reforms in Ethiopia.

“Secretary Kerry should be clear that the Ethiopian government’s crackdown on media and civil society harms ties with the US,” Lefkow said.  “Continued repression in Ethiopia cannot mean business as usual for Ethiopia-US relations.”
@https://www.hrw.org/news/2014/04/28/ethiopia-arrests-upstage-kerry-visit

Sunday, April 27, 2014

THE ROLE OF LIVESTOCK IN MITIGATING LAND DEGRADATION, POVERTY AND CHILD MALNUTRITION IN MIXED FARMING SYSTEMS: THE CASE OF COFFEE-GROWING MIDLANDS OF SIDAMA - ETHIOPIA



Introduction
Land degradation in the tropics is strongly associated with human population growth. The latter phenomenon is quite marked in humid areas and in the temperate highlands (Jahnke 1982). Notably in the plateaux of Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, several pastoral systems have gradually evolved into mixed farming, in order to cope with such pressure (Ruthenberg, 1980). Land is more intensively utilized as population density increases since mixed systems are more efficient than specialized crop or livestock systems (McIntire et al.,1992). In fact, livestock crop integration allows:
  • to diversify production,
  • to distribute labour and harvest better throughout the year as well as distribute tasks among the different components of the household (HH),
  • to recycle waste products within the system, preventing nutrient losses,
  • to minimize the risk and the effects of livestock and crop pests;
  • to improve indigenous husbandry techniques and knowledge, hence
  • to intensify and control more efficiently input - output flows, increasing productivity and minimizing risks.
Livestock provide not only draught power, manure, milk, meat and by-products. As in traditional pastoral societies, they have cash buffer and insurance functions. The former function also supports the use of inputs in crop cultivation which in turn generates higher on-farm productivity for both crops and livestock (Brumby, 1986).
On the other hand, human population growth is responsible for decreasing land plot size. In Rwanda and Burundi, this pressure led to stocking rates much lower than in other East African highlands (50 TLU/km2 vs. 100–130 TLU/km2, according to the zone) due to increasing conversion of pasture into cultivated land (de Leeuw and Reid, 1995). In these areas, the doubling time of human population is around 20 years. In Sidama, Southern Ethiopia, a similar pattern was already described in 1975 by Ayele who stated that “cultivation has been and is invading livestock grazing areas. As population increases, people prefer to cultivate crops rather than breed livestock”.
The progressive disappearance of livestock is a key destabilizing factor responsible for the involution of the system characterized by nutrients deficiencies and degradation. It may lead to conflicts between different groups sharing resources within the system. This trend is more evident in the absence of marketing opportunities for livestock and/or crop products (Ruthenberg, 1980; Steinfeld et al., 1997).
In Sidama Awraja (or district) a WHO/UNICEF Joint Nutritional Support Programme (JNSP) was implemented during the second half of the 1980's. The area was selected because it presented a variety of environmental, socio-economic and cultural situations. This study, carried out as part of the programme activities, illustrates the role played by livestock in alleviating land degradation, poverty and the resulting child malnutrition in integrated systems.
The Sidama Awraja
Located in the northern part of Sidama Province, the Sidama Awraja occupies some 5900 km2, with a human population of 1.5 million. The Awraja is one of the most densely inhabited areas of Ethiopia, with 254 people/km2, in contrast to the national average of 32 people/km2.
The region is divided into three main ecozones, each with different agricultural systems and development potential, (Figure 1). The lowlands are situated in the Rift Valley and range between 1100 m and 1600 m in altitude. Because of poor soil and an average annual rainfall of only 400 mm, the main human activity in this zone is pastoralism. The next belt, the midlands, ranges from 1600 to 2000 m and averages more than 1500 mm of precipitation annually. About 70% of the Awraja's human population is concentrated in this very fertile zone (Raya, 1987). It has sustained rapid population growth because it provides a favourable environment for agriculture and development. The farming system, a combination of horticulture and animal husbandry, is characterized by the cultivation of false banana (Ensete ventricosum), which is the principal staple food, and cash crops. Major cash crops include coffee (Coffea arabica, a wild shrub indigenous to southern Ethiopia) and chat (Catha edulis, whose leaves are chewed as a stimulant). Incomes in the midlands are considerably higher than in the other two zones and in the rest of Ethiopia (Anonymous, 1984). A tarmac road and the majority of the Awraja's dirt roads are found in the midlands, as are the main services and the regional and district capitals. The territory above 2000 m constitutes the highlands, whose potential for cereal production has not yet been fully exploited also because of poor communication networks. At present, abundant pasture allows highland farmers to raise large numbers of livestock, including horses that supply most of the transport in this zone.
The principal ethnic group in this zone is the Sidama, a Cushitic-speaking people. Traditionally cattle raisers, their way of life has changed, especially in the midlands, as cultivation is invading grazing areas. For example, seasonal movements towards neighbouring highlands in search of better pasture are practised no more. Nowadays, they live together with the Oromo pastoralists (the Guji) who used to be their traditional enemies. “Sidama”, which means “foreigner” was the name used by the Oromo during their expansion from the eastern Ethiopian highlands into the Awraja (Biasiutti 1959). Other ethnic groups found in the area are the Wolaita and the Amhara.
The study
JNSP activities were concentrated in the midlands of Sidama. According to the results of a baseline survey carried out by the programme, 36% of children in the Awraja had chronic and 41% acute malnutrition. The problem was surprisingly more severe in the midlands.
A key question still needed an answer: within the same community, which are the most vulnerable HHs and why?
Several studies have clearly pointed out the influence of the socio-economic status, as well of environmental factors, on child malnutrition (Payne, 1977; Nabarro, 1981; Victora et al., 1986). The proportion of malnourished children within a community is a powerful indicator of the level of access to basic resources from vulnerable groups. High prevalences are the symptoms of a system under stress and they are often associated with scarcity, degradation or mismanagement of available resources, including inequity. According to Jonsson (1984) the main underlying causes of the phenomenon are: insufficient HH food security, inadequate child care, and insufficient basic health care.
The present study was carried out in 1988 as part of programme activities in order to:
  1. describe the main features and constraints of the prevalent farming system in the midland:
  2. identify key determinants of child malnutrition, with particular emphasis on food security and HH economics.
Materials and methods
The study design hinged upon:
  • the results of JNSP activities in the area, notably a performed baseline survey and ongoing regular growth-monitoring sessions;
  • the direct involvement of local community workers (i.e., community development, health and agricultural workers) also in order to emphasize the intersectoral and participatory approach of the exercise.
The data were collected mainly through:
  1. rapid rural appraisal,
  2. HH questionnaires, and
  3. direct observations.
  1. Rapid rural appraisal techniques were adapted from Conway (1985) and developed in order to analyse livestock productivity, HH economics and market prices in a better way (Ghirotti, 1992). During meetings with farmers, results were interpreted and discussed with the assistance of community workers.
  2. 102 heads of HH, out of the 109 originally selected, were interviewed in four selected villages of the midlands: Telamu, Sedeka, Weinenata and Ferro. Data on age-sex distribution of the interviewed households are in Figure 2. These villages were involved in the programme (JNSP) activities and the sample was drawn from a list of HH's. All the interviews were performed in the local language through a trained interpreter during house-to-house visits. They took place in August, a period which corresponds with the beginning of the new Sidama traditional year and the end of the Ethiopian calendar. It was then easier for the farmer to recall events of the previous year. The methodology was tested in a fifth village (Wondo). The results of this pilot trial were not included in the study.
  3. At the end of each interview, some selected features (e. g., land plot size and conditions, type and quantity of cultivated crops, number and type of livestock owned) were verified utilizing HH conditions, as well as ownership of a functioning radio set and type of bed, as wealth indicators. The previous year's coffee production of each HH was checked at the local Peasant associations (PAs) where the harvest had to be sold.
Further information about the study area and methodology can be obtained from a previous publication (Ghirotti, 1995).
Risks factors in child malnutrition
Ninety eight HHs, in the selected villages, fulfilled the basic criteria for being involved in a case - control study. All of them having a child below three years of age (13-24 months included) with weight for age above 90% of the median of the Harvard reference population (hence well nourished) or with weight for age below 65% of the median of the Harvard reference population (hence severely malnourished). They were divided in two extreme groups in order to identify main determinants of malnutrition. The study was performed as single blind: information on the nutritional status of the children belonging to the interviewed HH were deliberately obtained only at the end of all the interviews in the concerned PA. The two major working hypotheses were:
  1. child malnutrition is associated with the income level of the HH,
  2. it is also associated with the degree of efficiency in land utilization.
At the same time a parallel and integrated investigation analyzed the role of maternal care and mother knowledge/attitude in the same HHs (N. Zagaria, unpublished document).
The income of each HH was estimated by making a calculation of the farm gross output of the year (according to the recorded production parameters), of ownership of goods, livestock and other sources of HH income. Data were computed into a spread-sheet format. Items were converted into monetary figures, i.e. Ethiopian Birr (at the time of the study 1 US$=2.05 E. Birr), according to local market prices.
Income pro capita was calculated by dividing the estimated gross income for the total number of HH members. The coefficient for children below five years was 0. 4, for family members between 5 and 15 years of age was 0. 75 and for members above 15 years was 1.
Efficiency in agricultural production was estimated by dividing the gross income for the size of the land holding (Spedding, 1981). Management was evaluated by comparing the husbandry practices of the two groups (HHs of well-nourished and HHs of malnourished child) to identify differences in their behaviour, if any, associated with production improvement (e. g. ; use of inputs, frequency of weeding and other husbandry practices, level of livestock care, diversification of production strategy, priorities in expenditures).
Data analysis
Data were analysed either comparing means with ANOVA or using chi-squared to test hypotheses. A Mantel - Haenszel stratified analysis was then carried out. The correlation coefficient was calculated to establish eventual relationship between selected variables. P values less than 0. 1 (10%) were considered as statistically significant. A statistical package EPI-INFO was used for the analysis (WHO-CDC, 1990).
Results
The farming system
HH composition and land plot size:
The average HH size is 6.5 persons (S. D. = 2.24). Its composition is given in Figure 2. Polygamy was found in 19 HHs. Three farms were led by a woman. 95.1% of the farmers cultivate less than one hectare of land (see table 1). The average land plot is 0. 4 ha. Its size is not associated with income (P>0. 1). The recorded population density in the area is 525 people/Km2 (see Table 2).
Income: The comparison between the means of the income recorded in HHs of the four villages, showed that the difference is not significant (P>0. 1). It was then assumed that the selected villages are rather homogenous. On-farm activities are the main source of income for 99 HHs (97.1%). Coffee and livestock production largely contribute to family income (over 80%), the former as a source of cash, the latter as an asset. The selling of cash crops (coffee, chat, sugarcane and other fruit) and dairy products provides most of the ready money available, on average 17% of the gross income, to buy farm inputs and to meet other HH expenditures. During the year of the study, 61 (59.8%) farmers worked either for other farmers or for the local producer co-operatives in order to obtain extra cash or, more frequently, food. Income generated from agricultural activities was integrated in 15 HHs (14.7%) with casual labour (e. g., brickwork), in 6 (5.9%) with handicraft production and in 4 HHs (3.9%) with alcohol sale. Income was not associated with the surface of cultivated land nor with the HH size (P>0. 1)
Crop Production: In the midlands, the garden is a combination of different food and cash crop species. The ensete plants form the higher canopy under which humidity is maintained and where coffee, kale (Brassica carinata), yam (Dioscorea abyssinica), sweet potato (Coleus edulis) and other vegetable and fruit trees are planted. The climate, with mild temperatures and water surplus for most of the year, is favourable to crops but also to weed growth. Soil fertility in the garden is kept and even increased by the daily spreading of the manure collected overnight. The floors of traditional housing are constructed in such a way that the urine of livestock kept indoor overnight drains into the garden. However, heaps of unused manure were noticed near some plots as well as land degradation in sloped or grazing areas. Maize is cultivated separately in rows, together with kale, beans and spice plants.
The frequency of the HHs cultivating the most important crops is summarized in table 3. Because of the small size of land plots, the main agricultural tool is a local bamboo hoe. The plough is used only by few farmers who cultivate more than one ha of land.
Ensete plays a central role in the life of Sidama people. It furnishes the main staple food which is potentially available throughout the year, fibre for handicrafts, ropes, leaves for shelter, by-products for animal feed. Preferably when the plant is 6-8 years old, the pseudostem is scraped in order to obtain “bula”, the most valuable food made from the juice, and “wasa”, which is obtained from fermentation of the solid residue and can easily be stored in the ground for over two years. Production per plant is about 30 kg though an eight years old plant can produce up to 40 kg of wasa.
All the farmers interviewed cultivate maize. Teff (Eragrostis teff), wheat and barley are cultivated by a few farmers (in seven, three and two HHs respectively) owning more than 0. 6 ha of land.
Production of coffee, the main cash crop, was not associated with plot size (P>0. 1). Fruits like orange, banana, avocado, guava and papaya have the function of cash crops, diversifying the HH economy and providing some petty cash when other sources are not available, especially for farmers in villages near the major markets and roads.
Because of the low but diversified production through the year, little is stored. Most food is eaten or sold within weeks from harvest, with the exception of was which can be prepared any time during the year.
Only 2.9% of the farmers interviewed use improved maize seeds. Fertilizers, mainly bought from free marketing, are employed by 21.6% of them and their use is associated with high income (P<0. 01). Nineteen (18.6%) farmers obtained information on how to improve their agricultural production, mainly coffee. Figure 3 shows the major constraints in crop production identified by the heads of HH. Among other causes, farmers mentioned the difficulty to obtain loans.
Livestock production: The recorded human/livestock ratios and density, in the study area as well in the whole Sidama and in the rest of Ethiopia, are given in Table 2. In spite of population pressure, livestock density in the area is higher than in the rest of the Awraja and of Ethiopia. On the other hand, the ratio of TLU per HH is lower.
Some 96% of the interviewed heads of HHs own livestock and about 89.2% own cattle (see Table 4). Cattle numbers are a good indicator of wealth, and ownership of more than three heads per HH is associated with an estimated annual income above E. Birr 1,000. In fact, the average herd size in a low income HH is 2.5 cattle, while in a wealthy one it is four cattle (P< 0. 001). The average herd structure is typically milk-calf production oriented (Figure 4). Oxen, as well as equine animals which are used as source of draught power, are owned only by farmers with larger land plots. The recorded production parameters are typical of a rather stable and productive traditional herd (Table 5). Farmers identified the main causes of losses in calves as diarrhoea and emaciation, while in adults poisoning, internal parasitism, clostridiosis and diarrhoea. Offtake comprises essentially sales.
Small ruminants are less diffused than cattle although they are probably more suitable to the local farming conditions (Tables 2 and 4). Animal production in the midlands is indeed milk-oriented and small ruminants cannot fulfil this important demand, especially sheep, because of a well-rooted food taboo. However, once this taboo is neglected, goats are gradually replacing other domestic ruminants. The recorded difference between lambing and kidding rates was significant (P<0. 01). The average flock size is not associated with income or land plot size (P>0. 1). Farmers say that the major causes of death in small ruminants are parasitism and predation. Offtake is in the form of sales. However on special occasions, such as birth of a child, special visits or sickness of a member, small ruminants are slaughtered to be consumed within the HH.
Chicken are bred independently of HH income as well. The mortality rate is quite high (39.2%) and affects mostly chicks. The major causes of death are predation by hawks (86.3%), diseases (12.1%) and accidents (1.6%). The recorded offtake was 22.7%. 3/4 of it was due to consumption by the members of the family.
Each beehive produces 3-3.5kg of honey which is used to produce local hydromel: “teij”. Fifty-nine percent of the cattle owners, regardless of their income, vaccinated their animals against major infectious diseases. In 44% of the herds there was a need for veterinary assistance during the year which, for the great majority, concerned cattle. Only two farmers obtained information on how to improve their livestock production. Of the 40 farmers who needed veterinary care during the reference year, 24 (60%) used traditional medicine, 10 (25%) modern medicine and 6 (15%) both. The choice was not associated with HH income level (P>0. 1). The major constraints in animal husbandry identified by farmers are given in Figure 5. Grazing areas are often limited to open meadow in front of the house and to scarce fallow land. By-products, mainly ensete leaves and maize stover, are given as feed to livestock in the dry season. However, according to farmers, an abundant diet of ensete leaves can cause severe enteritis, notably in young animals. Local coarse grass (Pennisetum scimperi), commonly found in common pastures and rich in silicates, is possibly responsible for early consumption of teeth in livestock.
Market prices: Seasonal dynamics of the price of common agricultural products are given in figures 6 and 7. Prices are higher in villages near the main tarmac road and the Awraja capital, Yerg' Alem (i.e., Weinenata and Ferro).
Food habits: Vegetable products are gradually replacing food of animal origin as maize is gradually replacing wasa in the diet. In families owning cattle, wasa is eaten with milk or butter. The latter food is considered as being very nutritive and used by well off families for weaning their children. Vegetables and fruit, on the other hand, are considered as being of little nutritive value. 45% of the farmers interviewed believe that good nutrition is based on food of animal origin and 28.4% believe that malnutrition is caused by the absence in the diets of such food. These beliefs are probably linked to the traditional pastoral life-style of local ethnic groups. However, 63.7% of the heads of HHs are aware that an unvaried diet is an important cause of malnutrition.
Expenditures: The main expenditures in the HH throughout the year are, in order of priority: food (82.1%), clothes (14.7%), taxes and contributions (2.9%). Priority in expenditure items is not related to the HH income (P>0. 1).
Risk factors in child malnutrition
As shown in Table 7 child malnutrition is strongly associated with an estimated income of less than 1100 E. Birr (P<0. 001). The mean gross income in HHs with a well nourished child is E. Birr 1471 (C. L. 92.9) while in the other group this is E. Birr 893 (C. L. 71.3). This difference is significant (P<0. 001). Income pro capita was not associated with malnutrition (P>0. 1). Moreover, the average size of HHs with a malnourished child was 6.8, while for HHs with well-nourished children it was 6.2. This difference was not significant (P>0. 1). Therefore, larger families are not more vulnerable.
Cattle ownership is a good indicator of wealth and a predictor of the child nutritional status (P<0. 01). Ownership of more that three cattle is associated with high income levels and good nutritional status of the child (respectively P<0. 001 and P<0. 005), see table 8. There is no confounding effect between the two factors. The correlation coefficient between income and herd size is 0. 73.
The association between different house conditions and levels of income, and between house conditions (hence of a income proxy) and malnutrition were both highly significant (P< 0. 001), see table 9. Bed or radio ownership are poor wealth or malnutrition indicators (P<0. 01), may be because of the small sample size.
The combination of number of cattle owned and house condition is an excellent predictor of nutritional risk, with an odd ratio of 15.5.
Malnutrition was not associated with number of wives nor with land plot size (P>0. 1). On the other hand, it was related to lower levels of efficiency in land utilization (Table 10).
No significant difference in agricultural practices or in awareness of nutritional problems was observed between the two groups of HHs.
At the time of the interviews, the gardens belonging to low income farmers presented most of the maize already harvested, hence before its optimal maturation. Ensete plants older than five years were also more frequently found in the garden of wealthy HHs.
Conclusions
Caution is needed while interpreting data obtained from official statistics or questionnaires (see for example, Chambers, 1983 and Gill, 1993). Bearing this in mind, the study, of which the results are consistent with the demographic and productive patterns recorded by broader surveys carried out by the Ministry of Agriculture (1984) and by JNSP, points out that:
  1. The prevalent farming system of the midlands of Sidama is under stress mainly because of burgeoning human population. Symptoms are not only the high proportion of children acutely or chronically affected by malnutrition but also the progressive degradation of resources in an environment once extremely fertile. Land erosion is commonly observed by farmers who consider it a major problem though in some plots nutrients surplus, as unused manure, was observed. Hurni (1988) classified soil erosion in Sidama as medium (20–40%). Pastureland is shrinking and degrading in its botanical composition. Most of the abundant water resources are now polluted.
  2. In order to buffer the progressive crisis, and given the presence of markets for cash crops and dairy products, the mixed system in Sidama midlands is rapidly evolving into specialization. The area is among the richest in Ethiopia (MOA, 1984). Because of their positive role as a source of cash in the HH economy, coffee and chat plants are gradually replacing food crops in the garden such as ensete, yam and maize. Nowadays, food is the main expenditure while in the 1970s it was clothing (Ayele, 1975; Hamer, 1987). The latter author, comparing HH income and expenditure balances between the 1960s and 1970s, points out that a sign of the vulnerability of the Sidama productive system today under stress is the increasing imbalance in favour of expenditures which can only be partially covered by previous years' savings. However, further specialization will reduce the flexibility of the system and make it more vulnerable because of its heavy dependency on remote markets beyond the reach of farmers' control (particularly in the case of coffee).
  3. The situation in Sidama could somehow be considered intermediate between what was observed in the Rwanda highlands (von Braun et al., 1991) and the positive Machakos case, Kenya (English et al., 1992). Nevertheless, Sidama has less marketing opportunities than Machakos and the enrolment rates for primary schools reported from Ethiopia may reduce the possibility of off-farm employment, for local farmers. As stated by von Braun et al. (1991), since rapid population growth contributes significantly to rural poverty, areas under such pressure may build their economic sustainability less and less upon agriculture alone. National land reforms have to be carefully designed and monitored to avoid low income HHs, in order to pay their debts, giving away their plots to well off farmers.
  4. The main underlying factor of malnutrition in children of Sidama is poverty. The parallel study carried out in the same area showed that child care and mother behaviour is not a major determinant of the phenomenon (Zagaria N., personal communication). Although child mortality is higher in poor HHs, when analysing the nutritional status of the siblings of infants included in the study and comparing it with the results of the present investigation, it came out that the protective effect of the family income on children decrease soon after they are weaned. Also wealthy HHs have stunted or underweight older children, though in a lower proportion than poor families (Ghirotti M., Zagaria N. and Tekle E., unpublished results).
A major conclusion of this study is that livestock play a protective role against land degradation and poverty. Such role against poverty and hence child malnutrition is associated with the possibility to diversify HH production and diet. There is no major difference in the skill and knowledge of members from low or high income HH. The main difference lies in the possibility to modulate their production and marketing strategies. High income farmers have a good area of manoeuvre within which they can adapt their decisions according to rapidly changing conditions. On the contrary, in order to cope with their immediate survival needs, low income farmers have to sell products soon after harvest, when prices are low, or consume them before they become ripe and reply on traditionally standardized husbandry techniques developed when pressure on local natural resources was less intense. The latter HHs have limited choices that are reduced every year or in every round of the “spiral of necessity” shown in Figure 8.
Acknowledgements
This paper is dedicated to the Ethiopian field workers, an example of devotion in performing their tasks, and to the memory of: Reginald Bark Griffiths (1920 – 1997), John William Coltrane (1926 – 1967), and Sophie Ali (1954 – 1990).
The study was performed within the field work programme of the “International Course for Primary Health Care Managers at District Level in Developing Country” (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome), supported by the Italian Technical Cooperation. The author is very grateful to: R. Guerra, course supervisor; E. Tekle, Ethiopian Nutritional Institute, and the staff of the UNICEF/WHO Joint Nutritional Support Programme, Sidama; S. Sanford, ILCA; D. Nabarro; S. Babsa, typist; G. Beccaloni, FAO documentarist; and Zebenay I., interpreter.
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Table 1: Land holding frequency per household in Sidama midlands (n=102)
cultivated land (hectare)frequency
<0. 581
0. 5–117
>12
Table 2: Human and livestock population densities in Ethiopia, Sidama and sampled Midlands (Sources: UN, JNSP and study data)
 EthiopiaSidamaMidlands
Population/Km232.7254.2525*
cattle/people0. 650. 650. 48
small rumin. /people10. 140. 11
equines/people0. 180. 040. 02
TLU/HH**4.152.992.17
cattle/Km221.3165.8252.6
small rumin. /Km232.734.655.4
equines/ Km25.79.18.7
TLU/Km222.6126.6190. 1
Table 3: frequency of households cultivating major crops (n = 102)
cropsno of HHscropsno. of HHs
ensete102banana69
maize102sugarcane67
coffee100chat65
kale95red pepper65
pumpkin88sweet potatoes47
yam79avocado38
orange73guava11
Table 4: number of households breeding livestock (n = 102)
speciesno of HHstotal number in the sample
cattle91319
goats1842
sheep1728
donkeys1010
horses11
chicken62214
beehives1443
no livestock4---
Table 5: Production rates recorded in cattle of Sidama Midlands (n = 369)
Calving %Mortality %Off take %
calfadult
61.524.22.86.2
Table 6: Production rates in small ruminants of Sidama Midlands (n = 33 + 57)
 BirthMortalityOff take
sheep58.8*012
goats95.4*3.39.6
Table 7: Child nutritional status and estimated household income
 Estimated household income
<1,100 E. birr>1,100 E. birr
Well nourished1740
Malnourished329
P < 0. 001 O. R. =8.37 C. L. =95%
Table 8: Child nutritional status and number of owned cattle (n = 98)
 Owned cattle
0–3>3
Well nourished2730
Malnourished3110
P < 0. 05 O. R. =3.44 C. L. =95%
Table 9: Child nutritional status and productivity per hectare (n = 98)
 E. Birr/0. 1 hectare
Well nourished51.63(+3.9)
Malnourished27.63(+2)
P<0. 001 C. L. =95%
Table 10: House condition and children nutritional status (n = 98)
 house condition
pooraveragegood
well nourished children41538
malnourished children22811
P<0. 001 O. R = 15.34 95% C. L.
Figure 1: Map of Sidama (*=sampled village)
Figure 1
Figure 2: Household age-sex distribution
% of the different age-sex group in the interviewed households, average value
Figure 2
Figure 3: Main problems in crop production
Figure 3
Figure 4: Average herd composition
Figure 4
Figure 5: Main problems in livestock production
Figure 5
Figure 6: Monthly variation of the price for one horse load of ensete
Figure 6
Figure 7: Monthly variation of the price for one qt of coffee or barley in Aleto Wondo
Figure 7
Figure 8: The spiral of necessity
Figure 8
ምንጭ፦ 
ፋኦ (FAO)