POWr Social Media Icons

Saturday, May 11, 2013


በአማን ንጋቱ
በሁሉም መሥሪያ ቤቶች ግድግዳ፣ በር፣ የማስታወቂያ ሰሌዳ አንዳንዴም በውስጥ ክፍሎች የተደረቱ ጽሑፎች ይታያሉ፡፡ ቢነበብም ባይነበቡም አንዱ በሌላው ላይ እየተደራረቡ ጽሑፎች ይለጠፋሉ፡፡ አሥራ ሦስት ገደማ ፍሬ ነገሮችን የያዘው “የሥነ ምግባር ደንብ መርሆዎች” የሚለው ርዕስ በየቦታው ጎልቶ ይታያል፡፡
እንደ ቅንነት፣ ታማኝነት፣ ግልጽነት፣ ሐቀኝነት ያሉት የአብዛኛዎቹ መርሆዎች ማጠንጠኛቸው፣ “ሙስና፣ ጉቦና መድልኦን መፀየፍ” እንደሆነ ከጽሑፎቹ መገንዘብ ይቻላል፡፡ ይሁንና መርሆዎቹ ከወረቀት ጌጥነት ባለፈ ያመጡት ለውጥ ምንድን ነው? የሚል ጥያቄ መነሳት አለበት፡፡ የለውጥ ሥራዎች ተግባራዊነት፣ የድርጅት ግምገማ መጠናከር (ከብዛቱ አንፃር ትግል ደክሟል የሚሉ የኢሕአዴግ ሰዎች አሉ) የሕጉ መሻሻልና የማስቀጣት አቅም መጨመር ዕውን ሙስናን ቀንሶታል ወይስ ተባብሷል በማለት የሚጠይቁ በዝተዋል፡፡ 
አቶ ጀማል ያሲን የሥነ ዜጋና ሥነ ምግባር መምህር ናቸው፡፡ በትምህርት ሥርዓቱ የሥነ ዜጋና ሥነ ምግባር ትምህርት ቢቀረፅም ሳይሠሩ የመክበር ዝንባሌው ሥር የሰደደ በመሆኑ በቀላሉ የሚነቀል ነቀርሳ አይደለም ይላሉ፡፡ “ሲሾም ያልበላ…” ከሚለው ተረት “የኮንትሮባንድ ፈታሽ” ወይም “የመርካቶ ትራፊክ ያድርግህ” እስከሚለው ምርቃት ድረስ ሳይሠሩ የመክበር አስተሳሰብ የተንሰራፋ እንደሆነ ያስረዳሉ፡፡ ቀስ በቀስ እየገነነ የመጣው ከመንግሥታዊ መዋቅር ባለፈ በሃይማኖት ተቋማትና በሲቪክ ማኅበራት ሳይቀር የሚታይ ጉቦ የመጠየቅ ፍላጎት ምንጩም ይኼው ነው፡፡ 
ዛሬ በትምህርትና በሕክምና ተቋማት ብቻ ሳይሆን በቀብር ሥፍራ ሳይቀር ሕግ ከሚያውቀው ክፍያ ውጪ “መወሸቅ” ተለምዷል የሚሉ አስተያየት ሰጪዎች ደግሞ፣ የነፃ ገበያና ኮሚሽን (ኤጀንት) ከሥራ መስክነት ባሻገር ለሙሰኝነት በር እንደከፈተ ያስረዳሉ፡፡ ነጥብ በመነጥብ ለማየት እንሞክር፡፡
ከንግግርና ከመርህ ማለፍ ያለበት የመንግሥት ትግል
መንግሥት የፀረ ሙስና ኮሚሽን አቋቁሞ፣ የተለያዩ አገሮችን ልምድ የቀመረ የፀረ ሙስና ጥምረት አደራጅቶ (ስብስቡ የራሱ ክፍተት ቢኖረውም)፣ በወንጀል ሕጉ የሙስናውን ክፍሎች የቅጣት ደረጃ ማሻሻሉ አንደኛው አዎንታዊ ዕርምጃ ነው፡፡ አስተያየት ሰጪዎች እንደሚሉት በሥርዓት ደረጃ “የከፋው ችግራችንና የሥርዓቱ አደጋ ሙስናና ኪራይ ሰብሳቢነት ነው” ብሎ በማመን ይህንኑ ፈተና ለመቋቋም ትግል በመጀመሩ መሰናክልን ቀድሞ እንደማወቅ ይቆጠራል፡፡ ያም ሆነ ጠበቅ ያለ ዕርምጃና በውጤት የታጀበ የፀረ ሙስና ትግል መደረጉ ላይ ብዙዎች ከፍተኛ ጥርጣሬ አላቸው፡፡ ይልቁንም የይስሙላ ነው ይላሉ፡፡ 
ፀረ ሙስና ኮሚሽን በቅርቡ በወጣው መረጃ እንደገለጸው፣ በትምህርት ቤት ከሚሰጠው የሥነ ምግባር ትምህርት ባሻገር ሰፊ የአስተምህሮትና የሕዝብ ግንኙነት ሥራ እየሠራ ነው፡፡ በዚህም፣ “አሁን ስለሙስና ጎጂነትና ነቀዝነት እንዲሁም ወንጀል መሆን ያልተገነዘበ የለም፤” ይላል፡፡ ነገር ግን አደጋው ሊታረም የሚችለው በራሱ በሕዝቡ ትግል መሆኑን ተገንዝቦ በፅናት መሥራት ላይ የሚቀር ተግባር አለ በማለት ያስረዳል፡፡ በእርግጥ በፀረ ሙስና በወንጀል ሕግ ቁጥር 414/96 አንቀፅ 404 የሙስና ወንጀል በግልጽ ተቀምጦ፣ ዘርዘር ያሉ አንቀጾች መካተታቸውና በመክሰስና በማስቀጣት አቅሙ ከፍተኛ ለውጥ ማምጣቱንም ይናገራል፡፡ 
አንዳንድ የኢሕአዴግ ባለሥልጣናትም የመንግሥትን ቁርጠኝነትን ሲገልጹ እስከ ምክትል ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር የደረሱ የአገሪቱ መሪዎችን ጭምር በሙስና ወንጀል ማስጠየቁን ያብራራሉ፡፡ በፌደራልና በክልል ከፍተኛ ኃላፊነት ላይ ያሉ ሰዎች በድርጊቱ ውስጥ ከተገኙ ከመጠየቅ እንደማያመልጡ በመጥቀስ (በተቃራኒ ወገን ግን ድርጅቱ ቁርጠኛ አይደለም የሚል ትችት ይነሳል) አስተያየት ሰጪዎችም ጅምሩ የሚናቅ ባይሆንም በቂ አይደለም ባይ ናቸው፡፡ በግል ጥብቅና ሥራ የተሰማራው አቶ መላኩ አሻግሬ የፀረ ሙስና አካሄድ ሰዶ ማሳደድና ተመዝብሮ ያለቀን ጉዳይ ወደ መፈለግ ያዘነብላል ሲል ያስረዳል፡፡ ለአብነት ያህል ከፍተኛ የሥራ ኃላፊዎችና የሚመለከታቸው አካላት ሀብታቸው ተመዘገበ ቢባልም መቼ ለሕዝብ ይፋ ተደረገ? ዕውን ሁሉም ያስመዘገበው በተጨባጭ ያለውን ሀብት ነው (አንዳንዶች በእርግጥም ያላቸው ሕንፃ፣ ቪላና ትርፍ ቤት በተለይ በአዲስ አበባ ዙሪያ ከተሞች አላስመዘገቡም ስለሚባል) የሚሉ ጥያቄዎች መመለስ አለባቸው፡፡ 
አንዳንዶች ደግሞ የፀረ ሙስና ኮሚሽን ተቋማዊ አቅም በቂ እንዳልሆነ ያስረዳሉ፡፡ ጥቆማ መቀበያ ክፍሉ በየሳምንቱ በርካታ ጥቆማዎች ቢደርሱትም ከመመርመር (Investigation) ይልቅ የቀረበውን መረጃ እንዳልተሟላ ይቆጥራል፡፡ በአዲስ አበባ ከተማ አስተዳደር የሚሠራ አንድ ባለሙያ በአንዳንድ የሥራ ኃላፊዎች ላይ የሚታየውን ሕገወጥ ድርጊት በተደጋጋሚ ቢጠቁምም በቂ ምላሽ አልተሰጠውም፡፡ ምክንያቱን ሲጠይቅ ደግሞ የፌዴራል ፀረ ሙስና ተቋሙ በትልልቅ ፕሮጀክቶችና የፌዴራል መንግሥት ከፍተኛ በጀቶች ላይ እንደሚያተኩር ተነግሮታል፡፡ የአዲስ አበባ ችግሮ የሚናቅ ባይሆንም በየሴክተሩ ትንሽ ትልቁን ለመመርመር አቅም የለም (አዲስ አበባ እንደ ክልሎች የራሱ ፀረ ሙስና ተቋም የለውም) መባሉን ያስታውሳል፡፡ የፋይናንስ ቢሮው የሚሠራው ኦዲት ደግሞ በጥቃቅን ክፍሎች ላይ እንጂ የሚታሙ “ትልልቅ ምዝበራዎችን” አይነካም ሲል ይተቻል፡፡ 
ይህ ባለሙያ ከሙስና የፀዳ ሥርዓት ማለትም የቀድሞው ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር በአንድ ወቅት የመላዕክት ስብስብ አይደለንም እንዳሉት መፍጠር ባይቻል እንኳ መመከት ይቻላል፡፡ ለዚህ ደግሞ የተቋሙን አቅም ማሳደግና የአስፈጻሚውና የፍትሕ አካሉ ጥንካሬ ያሻል፡፡ ሥራውን በተመለከተ በግልጽነትና በተጠያቂነት መንፈስ ለሕዝቡ ሊገለጽለት ይገባል ይላል፡፡ 
ትልቁ የሕዝብ ወኪል ሕግ አውጪው ጥርስ ይኑረው 
የኢፌዲሪ የሕዝብ ተወካዮች ምክር ቤት እስካሁን ከ740 የማያንሱ አዋጆችን በማውጣት የአገሪቱ የልማት፣ የዲሞክራሲና የውጭ ግንኙነት ሥራዎች እንዲጠናከሩ በማድረግ ላይ መሆኑ ይነገራል፡፡ አስፈጻሚውን “በመከታተልና በመቆጣጠር” ሥራ ላይም ይንቀሳቀሳል ይባላል፡፡ አስተያየት ሰጪዎች ሙስናና መድልኦን ለመታገል የሚረዱ ሕጎችን ማውጣቱን እንጂ አፈጻጸማቸውን ፈትሾ የሠራው ተግባር አልተሰማም ይላሉ፡፡ አስደንጋጭ የኦዲት ሪፖርቶችን ሰምቶ “በሙሉ ድምፅ” ከማፅደቅ ባለፈ ምን የማሻሻያ ዕርምጃ አስወሰደ? ከጥፋቱስ እነማን ተማሩ? የሚሉ ጥያቄዎች በዚያም በዚህም ይደመጣሉ፡፡ 
ሰሞኑን በቀረበው የአገሪቱ የ2004 ዓ.ም. ኦዲት ሪፖርት በ57 ናሙና ተቋማት ላይ ተሠርቶ የ1.4 ቢሊዮን ብር ገደማ ብክነት፣ ምዝበራና ሒሳብ ማወራረድ እንዳልተፈጸመ ተገልጿል፡፡ ከዚህ ውስጥ ትምህርት ሚኒስቴርን የሚያክል አንጋፋ መሥሪያ ቤት 460 ሚሊዮን ብር ገደማ አለማወራረዱ ወዴት እየሄድን ነው? ያስብላል የሚሉ አሉ፡፡ የትምህርት ተቋማትና ሚኒስቴሩ ካልታረሙ ምን እንማራለን? ብሎ መሥጋት ተገቢ ነው፡፡ 
ባለፉት ተከታታይ ዓመታትም ከ800 ሚሊዮን እስከ 1.1 ቢሊዮን ብር በየዓመቱ የኦዲት ሪፖርት ክፍተቶች ለፓርላማው ቀርበዋል፡፡ ምን ዕርምጃ ተወሰደ? ቢያንስ ፀረ ሙስና ኮሚሽን ከችግሩ ተነስቶ ያገኘው ውጤት የት ጋ ተሰማ? ይህ በጥቂት መሥሪያ ቤቶች የተካሄደ የናሙና ኦዲት በትልልቅ ፕሮጀክቶችና በሺዎች የሚቆጠሩ የፌዴራልና የክልል መንግሥታዊና ሕዝባዊ መሥሪያ ቤቶች ቢካሄድ ብክነቱ ምን ያህል ይሆናል? በማለት የሚጠይቁ ብዙዎች ናቸው፡፡ ስለዚህ ሕግ አውጭው አካል የሕጉን ተፈጻሚነት ከመከታተል በላይ የሕዝብ ዕንባ የመጥረግና አጥፊዎችን የመታገል ሕጋዊና ሞራላዊ ኃላፊነቱን ሊወጣ ይገባው ነበር፡፡ ሕግ አውጪው አስፈጻሚውን መቆጣጠር ካልቻለ ወዴት እየተሄደ ነው? 
ከመንግሥታዊ ቢሮክራሲ ውጭ ያልተቀጣጠለ ትግል 
የሙስና ፈተና ሥልጣንን መሠረት አድርጎ በስፋት የሚፈጸም ነው፡፡ በተለይ በአፍሪካ፡፡ ያም ሆኖ እያደገ በመጣው የግል ሴክተር ውስጥ በአክሲዮኖችና በማኅበራትም በከፍተኛ ሁኔታ የሚንፀባረቅ ችግር ነው፡፡ ከሰሞኑ በዚሁ ጋዜጣ ላይ በባንክ ሴክተሩ የሚስተዋለውን አስፈሪ ድርጊት አንብበናል፡፡ በዝርዝር ቢጠና ከዚህም በላይ አደጋው እንደሚኖር በሬዲዮ ውይይትም ሲጠቀስ አድምጫለሁ፡፡ በተመሳሳይ በሌሎች አካባቢዎችስ ሙስና አይሸትምን በማለት አንዳንድ አስተያየት ሰጪዎችን ጠይቄአለሁ፡፡ 
አቶ በርሄ የተባሉ በግል ሥራ የሚተዳደሩ የአዲስ አበባ ነዋሪ፣ “እላፊ የመፈለግና ያልሠሩበትን የመሰብሰብ ዝንባሌ በግልና በመንግሥት ተቋማት ውስጥ ተብሎ ሊለያይ አይችልም፡፡ በተፈጠረው ዕድልና በአጋጣሚው ሁሉ የሚሰርቅ ሰው እጁ ሊፀዳ አይችልም፤” ይላሉ፡፡ በመሆኑም ዛሬ መንግሥታዊ ባልሆኑ ድርጅቶች ውስጥ የሚሠሩ አንዳንድ ሰዎች በምን በለፀጉ? አክሲዮን ሰብስበው ትርምስ ውስጥ የገቡ ወይም የተሰወሩ እያየን መሆኑ ለምን ይዘነጋል በማለት ይጠይቃሉ፡፡ 
“በግል ተቋራጮችና ኮንትራክተሮች አካባቢ ያለው በፍጥነት የመበልፀግ ዝንባሌስ ምንጩ ምንድን ነው? ከሦስትና ከአራት ዓመታት በፊት አነስተኛ ኮንትራክተር ፈቃድ የነበረው ሁሉ ተምዘግዝጎ ሰማይ የነካው በምንድን ነው?” የሚሉት አቶ በርሄ፣ በሥራና በላብ ብቻ የተገኘ ሳይሆን ካለቀረጥ በሚገባ ዕቃ፣ በሕገወጥ ብረትና ሲሚንቶ ሽያጭ፣ በግንባታ ጥራት መጓደል (በፍጥነት መሥራት…)፣ ወዘተ እንደሆነ ግምታቸውን ይሰነዝራሉ፡፡ በእርግጥም በቅርቡ ፀረ ሙስና ኮሚሽን ለጋዜጠኞች በሰጠው ሥልጠና ወቅት የትምህርትና የሕዝብ ግንኙነት ዳይሬክተሩ አቶ ብርሃኑ አሰፋ ያሉትም ከዚህ አባባል ጋር ይስማማል፡፡ እንደ ኢትዮጵያ ባሉ ሰፊ የመሠረተ ልማት ሥራ ውስጥ በገቡ አገሮች ዋነኛ የሙስና ምንጭ የኮንስትራክሽን ዘርፍ ነው፡፡ “እኛም እንደ ሱስ ቦታ (Senstive Area) ይዘነዋል፤” ነበር ያሉት፡፡ ይህ ዘርፍ አጓጊና ትርፍ የሚዛቅበት በመሆኑ ከተለያዩ ቦታዎች በሙስና በተገኘ ገንዘብ የተገዙ የኪራይ ተሽከርካሪዎችና ማሺን አቅራቢዎች እንደበዙበት እያየን ነው፡፡ መሬት ወረው ከሸጡ እስከ ባንክ ባለሙያዎች ድረስ ይህንን የሞቀ ቢዝነስ ተቀላቅለውታል፡፡ 
ከእነዚህ ምልክቶች አንፃር ፀረ ሙስና ኮሚሽንም ሆነ መንግሥት (ሕግ አውጭው፣ ሕግ ተርጓሚውና ሕግ አስፈጻሚው) ልብ ያላሉት የሕዝብ ሀብት መመዝበሪያ ሆኗል የሚሉት አስተያየት ሰጪዎች፣ የመንግሥት የሥራ ኃላፊና ባለሙያ ሀብቱ እየተመዘገበና እየተገመገመ መረጃ ሲገኝ ተከሶ እየተቀጣ ነው፡፡ ለሌላው ግን እንዲያውም “ለመንግሥት ሌባው” መሸሸጊያ ሆኗል፡፡ ንፋስ አመጣሽና ሙስና መበልፀጊያ እንዳይሆኑ መጠርጠር ተገቢ ነው ይላሉ፡፡ የእነዚህ ድርጊቶች የከፋው አደጋ ደግሞ በሕዝቡ ውስጥ የጎላ የኑሮ ልዩነት በመፍጠር፣ ተስፋ ቆራጭነትና ብሶትን መቀስቀሳቸው ነው፡፡ ስለዚህ ጠበቅ ሊባልበት የሚገባ ጉዳይ መሆኑን ማስታወስ ተገቢ ነው፡፡ በ“ዕድገት” ስም እየተጀቦነ ውስጥ ውስጡን የአገር ኢኮኖሚ የሚበላው “ነቀዝ” መድኃኒት ሊፈለግለት ይገባልም ይላሉ፡፡ 
የሌሎች ልማታዊ ባህሪ ያላቸው አገሮችን ልምድ ያልቀመረ ትግል 
ቻይና በዓለም በሁለተኛ ደረጃ ላይ የምትገኝ የትልቅ ኢኮኖሚ ባለቤት ነች፡፡ በትሪሊዮን ዶላሮች የተከማቸው ገንዘቧ ከራሷ አልፎ ለአሜሪካና ለሌላው ዓለም ኢንቨስትመንት እያገለገለ ነው፡፡ በዚያው ልክ የከፉ የሙስና ድርጊቶች የሚስተዋሉባት አገር ነች፡፡ ዘ ግሎባል ታይምስ እንደገለጸው እ.እ.አ. ከ2008 እስከ 2011 ባለው ጊዜ ውስጥ ከቻይና በቢሊዮን የሚቆጠሩ ዶላሮች የሚገመት ሀብት ዘርፈው ወደ ሌላ አገር የጠፉ 128 ሰዎች ተከሰዋል፡፡ አብዛኛዎቹ የመንግሥት ባለሥልጣናት፣ የከተማ ከንቲባዎችና ሥራ አስኪያጆች፣ የባንክ ገዢዎችና ኃላፊዎች፣ የኮንስትራክሽን ዘርፍ ኃላፊዎችና ሙያተኞች መሆናቸውን ሪፖርቱ ያስረዳል፡፡ እንደዚያም ሆኖ ቻይና ሙሰኞችን በመቅጣት ትታወቃለች፡፡ ሙስና የዘረፉትን ሀብት ከማስመለስ አንስቶ እጅ እስከ መቁረጥና ሞት ድረስ የሚያስቀጣ ነው በቻይና፡፡ የሀብት ማስመዝገብ ሥራም ባለፉት ዓመታት የተጀመረ ሲሆን፣ በውሸት ሀብት ያስመዘገበ የሚከፍለው ዋጋ ቀላል አይደለም፡፡ የግሉ ሴክተርና አክሲዮኖችም ቢሆኑ ከግብር ሥርዓቱ ጋር በተያያዘ የገቢና ወጪ ምዝገባ ሥርዓት ሚናቸው ተለይቷል፡፡ መንግሥት ከቻይና የሚወስደውን የልማት ተሞክሮ በፀረ ሙስና ትግሉስ ለምን አይደግመውም? ይላሉ ታዛቢዎች፡፡ ከዚህ ባለፈም ግልጽነት፣ ተጠያቂነትና ኃላፊነት ያለበት ሥርዓት በመዘርጋት ሙስናን ለምን አይቆጣጠርም በማለት የሚጠይቁ አሉ፡፡
በብሔራዊ የፀረ ሙስና ጥምረት አስፈላጊነትና የሌሎች አገሮች ተሞክሮ ላይ ጥናት ያዘጋጁት ረዳት ፕሮፌሰር ጌታቸው አሰፋ (የአዲስ አበባ ዩኒቨርሲቲ መምህር) የደቡብ አፍሪካ፣ የአርጀንቲና፣ የህንድ፣ የቦትስዋና የጋናና የደቡብ ኮሪያን ተሞክሮ ፈትሸዋል፡፡ ታዲያ የብዙዎቹ አገሮች ጥምረት ጠንካራ፣ ፀረ ሙስና ኮሚሽንን ሊያግዝ የሚችልና ገለልተኛ የመሆን አቅም ያለው ይመስላል፡፡ 
“ለምሳሌ የአፍሪካዊቷ ቦትስዋና ፀረ ሙስና ጥምረት የእንባ ጠባቂ ተቋም፣ ዋና ኦዲተር፣ ገልተኛ የምርጫ ኮሚሽን፣ የፀረ ሙስናና የኢኮኖሚ ወንጀሎች ዳይሬክቶሬት፣ የመገናኛ ብዙኃንና (የግሉን ጭምር) የሲቪል ማኅበራትን ያካትታል፤” የሚለው ጥናቱ፣ በጋናም ጥምረቱ የመንግሥት ተቋማትን፣ የግል የንግድ ተቋማትንና የዘርፍ ማኅበራትን፣ እንዲሁም የሙያና የሲቪል ማኅበራትን፣ የተቃዋሚ ፖለቲካ ፓርቲን ጨምሮ ያቀፈ ሲሆን፣ የራሱ አስፈጻሚ ጽሕፈት ቤትና ፎረም ኖሮት የተሻለ ስብስብ ያለውና ለውጥ እየመጣ ያለ ተቋም ነው፡፡ የደቡብ ኮሪያ ጥምረትም ሞዴል የሚባል ሲሆን፣ ሁሉንም ባለድርሻ አካላት በማሰባሰብ ተጨባጭ ውጤት ማምጣቱን ረዳት ፕሮፌሰሩ በጥናታቸው አመልክተዋል፡፡ 
ከዚህ አንፃር በአገራችን የፀረ ሙስና ጥምረት መቋቋሙ አንድ ዕርምጃ ሆኖ አሳታፊነቱና ገለልተኝነቱ በቂ አይደለም የሚሉ ወገኖች አሉ፡፡ ቢያንስ የሲቪክ ማኅበራት፣ የተቃዋሚ ፓርቲ ወኪሎች፣ የዩኒቨርሲቲ ምሁራንና የግል ሚዲያ ማኅበራት ወኪሎችን በሚገባ ባለማሳተፉ ነፃና ገለልተኛ በሆነ መንገድ ለመታገል አቅም ያንሰዋል በማለት ይተቻሉ፡፡ ከዚህም በላይ የራሱ አስፈጻሚ ኖሮት በምክትል ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር ደረጃ መመራቱ በጎ ጅምር ቢሆንም፣ ጽሕፈት ቤት ተቋቁሞለት የሕዝብ ቅሬታና መረጃን እየተቀበለ ካልሠራ ጥንካሬ ሊኖረው እንደማይችል የዘርፉ ባለሙያዎች ያስረዳሉ፡፡ 
“የመንግሥት ሚዲያ፣ እምባ ጠባቂና ምርጫ ቦርድ ገለልተኛ ናቸው ወይ?” የሚለው ጥያቄ በሁሉም የፖለቲካ ኃይሎችና በሕዝቡ ዘንድ ተመሳሳይ መልስ ሲኖረው፣ የዴሞክራሲ ግንባታ ብቻ ሳይሆን ሙስናንም ለመታገል እንደሚረዳ ነው ባለሙያዎቹ የሚናገሩት፡፡ ስለሆነም መንግሥት በብዙ ዘርፎች ከሌሎች መንግሥታት የሚቀስመውን ልምድ ለዚህ ጉዳይም ማዋልና በፅናት መሥራት ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ 
ምን ይደረግ?
ሙስና ሁሉንም ነገር የሚያጠፋ አደጋ ነው፡፡ ፍትሐዊ የሀብት ክፍፍልን ያስተጓጉላል፡፡ የሕግ የበላይነትን ይሸረሽራል፡፡ ወንጀልና ማጭበርበር ያንሰራፋል፡፡ በዚህም የሕዝብ ብሶትንና ሥርዓት አልበኝነትን ያነግሳል፡፡ ይኼ ሟርት ሳይሆን ሥጋት ነው፡፡ ስለዚህ የጋራ ጠላት የሆነውን የልማትና የዴሞክራሲ ሥርዓት ግንባታን እንቅፋት በጋራ መታገል ግድ ይለናል፡፡ “በአሉባልታና መረጃ በማይቀርብበት ወሬ” ጊዜ ማጥፋት ሳይሆን ካለድካም የበለፀጉ ካሉ ማጋለጥ ግድ ይላል፡፡ መንግሥትም ቢሆን ከራሱ ቢሮክራሲ ውጪ በግሉ ሴክተርና በኅብረተሰቡ ውስጥ ሙስና እንዲወገድና የሕግና የሕዝብ ግንኙነት ሥራ መሠራት አለበት፡፡ በሁሉም አካባቢ አደጋው መኖሩን የሚያሳየው፣ “በአሥር ዓመታት ውስጥ 200 ቢሊዮን ብር የሚደርስ የአገሪቱ ገንዘብ ወደ ውጭ ወጥቷል!” የሚለው አስደንጋጭ የዓለም ፋይናንስ ተቋማት ፎረም ዜና ነው፡፡ ይኼ ጉዳይ ቀደም ብሎ ቢነገርም መንግሥት ማስተባበሉን አልሰማሁም፡፡ ስለሆነም የፀረ ሙስና ጥምረቱና የተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ጥርስ ኖሯቸው ሊታገሉ ግድ ይላል፡፡ የፍርድ ቤቶችና የሚዲያው ኃላፊነትም ትልቅ ነው!! ለአንድ ዓላማ ተጣምሮ አገርን ማዳን ይገባልና!!
ከአዘጋጁ፡- ጸሐፊውን በኢሜይል አድራሻቸው AmanN@gmail.com ማግኘት ይቻላል፡፡    

የምርት ገበያው ደካማ አሠራር ቡና አቅራቢውን እያኮላሸው መሆኑ ተገለጸ

የኢትዮጵያ ምርት ገበያ አሠራር ችግር እየፈጠረባቸውና ለከፍተኛ ኪሳራ እየዳረጋቸው መሆኑን የቡና አቅራቢዎች በተደጋጋሚ ሲገልጹ መቆየታቸው የሚታወቅ ሲሆን በተለይ የሲዳማ ቡና አቅራቢዎች ማኅበር ለችግሩ መፍትሔ እንዲሰጠው ጥያቄ ማቅረቡ ታውቋል፡፡
ማኅበሩ በቅርቡ በሐዋሳ ከተማ ባካሄደው ስብሰባ፣ በሐዋሳ የሚገኘው የምርት ገበያው ማዕከል፣ አደረሰብን ያሉትን ችግር በዝርዝር በማስቀመጥ፣ ይህንን ችግር እንዲፈታላቸው ለመንግሥት አቤት ብለዋል፡፡ 
በስብሰባው ወቅት እንደተገለጸውና መንግሥት እንዲያውቅልን በማለት በጽሑፍ ያዘጋጁት መረጃ እንደሚያሳየው፣ ችግሩ ከአገልግሎት አሰጣጥ ጀምሮ የተዛባ የቡና ጥራት ደረጃ አሰጣጥን የሚያጠቃልል ነው፡፡
የቡና ደረጃ አሰጣጥ ላይ ያለው የተዘበራረቀ አሠራር ከአቅማችን በላይ ሆኗል የሚሉት የማኅበሩ አባላት፣ ደረጃውን ጠብቆ የተዘጋጀ ቡና በአንዱ የምርት ገበያው ማዕከል ባለሙያዎች የተሰጠው ደረጃ በሌሎች ማዕከሎች ግን ደረጃውን አልጠበቀም ተብሎ ይጣልባቸዋል፡፡ 
ባለፉት ሁለት ወራት የሐዋሳው የምርት ገበያ መጋዘን ጥበት አጋጥሞታል በመባሉ ወደ አዲስ አበባ የላኩት ቡና፣ ሐዋሳ ላይ ደረጃ አምስት ተብሎ አዲስ አበባ ላይ ግን በጥራቱ የደረጃ ሁለት ማዕረግ እንደተሰጠ የተመደበ ሲሆን ለአብነት ጠቅሰዋል፡፡ 
እንዲህ ባሉ አግባብ ያልሆኑ አሠራሮች ምክንያት የቡና ላኪዎች ጉዳት ላይ እየወደቁ መሆናቸውን አስረድተዋል፡፡ በዚህም ችግር አንድ ቡና አቅራቢ ድርጅት በአንድ መኪና በግምት ከ80 እስከ 100 ሺሕ ብር እየከሰረ ይገኛል ሲሉ ለሪፖርተር ገልጸዋል፡፡
ሐዋሳ የሚገኘው ምርት ገበያ፣ ቡናቸውን ለኤክስፖርት ገበያ መቅረብ የማይችል  (Undrscreen) በማለት ከገበያ ውጪ ሲያደርገው በተደጋጋሚ የሚከሰት ድርጊት በመሆኑ፣ እንደዚህ ያለና ሁሌም ጥራት የማይኖረው ቡና ሊኖር አይችልም በማለት የሚያሰሙት አቤቱታ ግን ተቀባይነት ሳያገኝ ቆይቷል፡፡ የምርት ገበያ የሚጠቀምበት የጆንያ መውጊያ (መመርመርያ) ቡናዎቹን ከሚገባው በላይ የሚያፈስ ከመሆኑ አንጻር በርካቶቹ የቡና ምርቶች ለገበያ መቅረብ የማይችሉ ተብለው የሚጣሉ መሆናቸውንም አመልክተዋል፡፡ 
አባላቱ አክለውም፣ እነዚህን የቡና ምርቶች ገበያ መቅረብ የማይችሉ፣ የወረደ ጥራት ያላቸው ብለው በዝቅተኛ ዋጋ ለአገር ውስጥ ገበያ እንዲሸጡ መገደዳቸውን በስብሰባቸው ላይ ገልጸዋል፡፡ ለውጭ ገበያ መቅረብ አይችልም የተባለውን ምርት ግን ላኪዎች ተሯሩጠው እንደሚገዙት፣ ይህንንም በማስረጃ ማረጋገጥ እንደሚችሉ አስታውቀዋል፡፡ የማኅበሩ አባላት ለሪፖርተር ሲገልጹ፣ በርካቶቹ የቡና ምርቶች ለውጭ ገበያ የማይቀርቡ ናቸው እየተባልን ላኪዎች ግን በጐን የሚገዙት ከሆነ የጥራት ማረጋገጫውን እንድንጠራጠረው ያደርገናል ብለዋል፡፡ 
ለዚህ ጥርጣሬያቸው ማስረጃ ብለው ካቀረቡት መካከል ሐዋሳ ላይ ለውጭ ገበያ መቅረብ አይችልም ተብሎ የነበረው ቡና፣ በተመሳሳይ ጊዜ ከአንድ መጋዘን በአራት መኪና ላይ ከተጫነ ተመሳሳይ ቡና ውስጥ የሁለቱ መኪና፣ ልዩ ቡና (Speciality Coffee) የሚል ደረጃ ሲወጣለት፣ በሁለቱ መኪና የተጫነው ደግሞ ደረጃ ሦስት ተብሏል፡፡ 
እንዲህ ያሉ አሠራሮች ሲታዩ በሐዋሳው እና በአዲስ አበባው የምርት ገበያ የጣዕም ልኬትና የደረጃ አሰጣጥ ልዩነት መኖሩን የሚያረጋግጡ በመሆኑ እንዲህ ያሉት ክፍተቶች በአግባቡ እንዲታዩላቸው ጠይቀዋል፡፡ 
በተጨማሪም ሐዋሳ ላይ ቡና አቅራቢው የቡና መያዣውን ጆንያ ገዝቶ ለላኪው ያለምንም ክፍያ ያስተላልፋል ያሉት አቅራቢዎቹ፣ ይሁንና ላኪው ይህንኑ ጆንያ መልሶ ለእነሱ በተደጋጋሚ መሸጥ የሚችልበት ክፍተት ለቡና አቅራቢው የተመቸ አለመሆኑንም ይገልጻሉ፡፡ ‹‹እንዲህ ባለው አሠራር ለአንድ መኪና ብቻ 5,760 ብር ወጪ እናደርጋለን፣ ይህ ወጪ ለእኛ የሚቀርልን ባይሆንም፣ ያለ አግባብ ለአንድ ጆንያ በተደጋጋሚ ክፍያ እንፈጽማለን፤›› ብለዋል፡፡ 
የሲዳማ ቡና አቅራቢዎች ማኅበር፣ የኢትዮጵያ ምርት ገበያ የተመሠረተባቸው ዓላማዎች ሙሉ ለሙሉ በተግባር ላይ አልዋሉም በማለት በስብሰባቸው ወቅት አፅንዖት ከሰጡባቸው ክስተቶች መካከል፣ ትርፍም ይሁን ኪሳራ ሲመጣ ሙሉ በሙሉ የሚመለከተው አካል ማለትም የቡና ባለቤት በመሆኑ፣ በግብይት ሒደት ወቅትም ወሳኝ ሆኖ ግብይቱ እንዲካሄድ ጠይቀዋል፡፡ 
ቡና ገዢዎች ከሌሎች የግብይት ተዋናዮች ጋር በመመሳጠር ከምርት ገበያ መገበያያ ቦታ ውጪ ተደራድረው ዋጋ የሚወስኑበት አካሄድ እንዳይኖር፣ እንዲሁም የማንኛውም ምርት /ቡናን/ ጨምሮ የጥቅም ፍሰቱ አምራቹን በማይጐዳ እውነታ ላይ ብቻ እንዲመሠረት ጠይቀዋል፡፡ 
ከዚህም ሌላ ያለ ሥራው፣ ያለድካሙ፣ ለመንግሥት ግብር የማይከፍል አካል ተጠቃሚ የሚሆንበት አሠራር መወገድ የሚኖርበት መሆኑን ያስገነዘቡት እኒሁ ቡና አቅራቢዎች፣ ከምንጊዜም በላይ በምርት ጥራትና ብዛት ኢትዮጵያን በዓለም አቀፍ መድረክ ተወዳዳሪ ማድረግ ይኖርብናል በማለት ስምምነት አድርገዋል፡፡
በዕለቱ በተስማሙባቸው ነጥቦች መሠረት የቡና ባለቤት መቶ በመቶ ትርፍም ይሁን ኪሳራ ሲመጣበት፣ የሚመለከተው ክፍል ለምሳሌ ቡና አቅራቢ ቡና ወደ ማዕከላዊ ገበያ ካቀረበ በኋላ ምርቱን ከገዥ ጋር ፊት ለፊት በዋጋ ተደራድሮ የመሸጥ ዕድል የሌለው በመሆኑ ያ እንዲለወጥ ጠይቀዋል፡፡ 
ይልቁንም በኢትዮጵያ ምርት ገበያ ውስጥ አባል በመወከል ብቻ ቡናውን መሸጥ እንዲችሉ ተደርጓል፡፡ ይህ ደግሞ አብዛኛው አባል ወንበሩን በከፍተኛ ዋጋ በጨረታ ያሸነፉና የተለያዩ የሥራ ዘርፎች ያላቸው ቢሆኑም፣ የቡና አቅራቢዎችን እንዲወክሏቸው ይደረጋል፤ ራሳቸው ከመሸጥ ይልቅ በሌላ ሦስተኛ ወገን በኩል ለመሸጥ ይገደዳሉ፡፡ ለግለሰቦች የገበያ ሕጉ ውክልና ስለሚፈቅድላቸው ለባለወንበሮች ውክልና በመስጠት ሽያጩ ይከናወናል፡፡ 
በእንዲህ ዓይነት ሁኔታ ቡና አቅራቢው ያቀረበው ቡና፣ በኢትዮጵያ ምርት ገበያ አባል ወይም በወኪል በኩል ብቻ ሽያጭ ላይ ስለሚውል፤ እንደዚሁም በተወሳሰበና አቅራቢው በማያውቀው ሦስተኛ ወገን በኩል ቡናው መሸጡ በኢትዮጵያ ምርት ገበያ አሠራር ላይ ቡና አቅራቢዎች እምነት እንዲያጡ ማድረጉን ይገልጻሉ፡፡ 
በመሆኑም የኢትዮጵያ ምርት ገበያ አባል ወኪል (የመድረክ ሠራተኛ)፣ ከቡና አቅራቢው ጋር ፍጹም አለመተዋወቅ እንዳለ ሆኖ፣ የምርት ገበያው አባል ወይም ወኪል የቡና አቅራቢውን መረጃ ለቡና ገዥ (ላኪ) አስቀድሞ በመስጠት ችግር እየተፈጠረ ነው ይላሉ፡፡ ለምሳሌ ግብይት የሚፈቀደው 30 ቀን ግዥ ሳይፈጸም እየተጠናቀቀ መሆኑን ለገዥ አስቀድሞ መረጃ ይሰጥበታል፡፡ ቡና አቅራቢው በምርት ገበያው የተቀመጠው የሚጣልበትን የመገበያያ ቀን ካለቀ ቅጣት በመሸሽ፣ ቡናውን በዝቅተኛ ዋጋ ሳይወድ በግድ እንዲሸጥ ተፅዕኖ በመፍጠር ትልቅ በደል ይፈጸማል፡፡ 
የራሳቸውን የመግባቢያ ጥሪ እንዳላቸው የሚነገርላቸው ገዥዎች፣ አምስት ቀን የቀረው (ይህም ግብይት መፈጸሚያው ቀን 25 ቀን በማለፉ) ቡና አቅራቢው ዋጋ አውርዶ እንዲሸጥ እያስገደዱት እንደሚገኙ አቅራቢዎቹ አማርረዋል፡፡  
ይህ ሁሉ ተደማምሮ ቡና አቅራቢዎች ሽያጭ ላይ በራሳችን ሥልጣን የመደራደር አቅም የሌለን በመሆኑና በምርት ገበያ አባል በኩል ግብይቱ የሚወሰን በመሆኑ፣ ቡና አቅራቢው በራሱ ንብረት ላይ ሙሉ በሙሉ መወሰን ከማይችልበት ደረጃ ላይ መድረሱንም ሳይጠቅሱ አላለፉም፡፡ 
በዕለቱ አባላቱ ያነሱት ሌላው ነጥብ፣ የቡና ናሙና መውሰጃና የቡና ደረጃን የተመለከተው ይገኝበታል፡፡ 
የኢትዮጵያ ምርት ገበያ ከተቋቋመ በኋላም ሆነ ከመቋቋሙ በፊት፣ የቡና ናሙና መውሰጃ ሒደቱ አንድ ዓይነት እንደነበር በማስታወስ፣ በወቅቱ የነበረው የቡና ምርት ናሙና መውሰጃ በቡና አቅራቢም ሆነ ላኪ ላይ ያስከተለው ችግር አልነበረም ይላሉ፡፡ አሁን ግን ምክንያቱ ግልጽ ባልሆነ መንገድ በተለይ ከ2004 ዓ.ም. በፊት የነበረው የቡና ናሙና መውሰጃ ሥርዓት መልሶ ሥራ ላይ እንዲውል ተጠይቆ የተመለሰ ቢሆንም፣ በዚህ በያዝነው ዓመት ይሄው ‹‹ስታንዳርድ›› የሚባለውና ምርት ገበያው የሚጠቀምበት የቡና ናሙና መውሰጃ፣ በማይታወቅ ምክንያት እንደገና መጥቷል፡፡ ይህ በመሆኑም የቡና አቅራቢው የሚያቀርበው ቡና አብዛኛው ለውጭ ገበያ መቅረብ የሚችል ነው እየተባለ ለከፍተኛ ኪሳራ መዳረጋቸውን አቅራቢዎቹ አስታውቀዋል፡፡ 
ቡና አቅራቢያዎቹ እየተፈጸመብን ነው ያሉትን ተፅዕኖ በተመለከተ የምርት ገበያውን ኃላፊዎች ለማነጋገር በተደጋጋማ ያደረግነው ሙከራ ሊሳካ አልቻለም፡፡ ኃላፊዎቹ ስለጉዳዩ ቀጥተኛ ማብራርያና ምላሽ ከመስጠት ይልቅ የተለያዩ ምክንያቶችን በመፍጠር በጉዳዩ ምላሽ ነፍገዋል፡፡ 

ዶ/ር ሁሴን መሀመድ እባላለሁ፤በመምህርነት (በአሶሼትፕሮፌሰር ማዕረግ)፤ በዕፅዋት ማዳቀልና ዝርያ በማውጣት በአሁኑ ወቅት
ደግሞ ከመምህርነት በተጨማሪነት በሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርስቲ የተቀናጀ የዘር ዘርፍ ልማት ፕሮግራም አስተባባሪ በመሆን እያገለገልኩ እገኛለሁ፡፡
የተቀናጀ የዘር ዘርፍ ልማት በጣም ሰፊ ፕሮግራም ነው፡ የዘር ዘርፍ ደግሞ የኢትዮጵያን ኢኮኖሚ ያሳድጋሉ ከምንላቸው
አስፈላጊ ግብአቶች አንዱ ነው፡፡ በፕሮግራሙ ዋና አላማችን ዓለም አቀፍ ሰብል ዝርያ አባዢ ድርጅቶችን፤ ኢትዮጵያዊና
ገና በመጠናከር ላይ ያሉ የግል የዘር አባዢዎችን በተጨማሪም ተደራጅተው ዘርን አባዝተው የሚያቀርቡ የአርሶ አደር
ማህበራትንና ሌሎች ባለድርሻ አካላትን አቀናጅቶ ለእድገታችን ማነቆ ሆኖ የቆየውን የዘር ዘርፍ ችግርን ለመፍታት ዘርን
በጥራትና በብዛት በማምረትና በማቅረብ በሀገራችን ውስጥ የጀመርነውን ፈጣን እድገት አስተማማኝ ለማድረግ ነው ፡፡
የዘር ዘርፍን ለማጠናከር የISSD ፕሮግራም የአርሶ አደር የዘር ብዜትና ግብይት ማህበራትና የግል የዘር አባዢዎችን
በመደገፍ፤ በሌላ በኩል ደግሞ የተመሰከረለት ዘርን (Certified Seed) መጠበቅ፤ ጥራታቸውን የጠበቁ አራቢ፤ መስራችና
ቅድመመስራች ዘሮችን በምርምር ማዕከላት ደረጃ በጥራት እንዲመረቱና የአቅም ማጎልበት ስራንም ለመስራት መሰረታዊ
የዘር ዘርፍ ችግርን የሚያጤን ኮሚቴ (Core Group) ከተቀናጀ የዘር ዘርፍ ልማት ፕሮግራም፤ ከክልል ግብርና ቢሮ፤
መንግስታዊ ካልሆኑ ድርጅቶች (NGO)፤ ከደቡብ ምርጥ ዘር ድርጅትና፤ ከደቡብ ግብርና ምርምር ማዕከል በተወጣጡ
አባላት ተቋቁሞ በዘርፉ ያሉትን ችግሮች ነቅሶ በማውጣት ለእነኚህ ችግሮች ዘላቂ መፍትሄ ለማምጣት እየሰራን እንገኛለን፡፡
ቀደም ብሎ የዘርፉ መሰረታዊ ችግር የነበረው የአራቢ እና ቅድመ መስራች ዘርን በጥራትና በብዛት የማምረት ጉዳይን
የደቡብ ግብርና ማዕከል በአሁኑ ጊዜ ትኩረት ሰጥቶ እየሰራ ይገኛል፡፡ ከዚህ በፊት ብዙም ትኩረት ያልተሰጠበት የምርምር
ማዕከሉን የማጠናከር ጉዳይም አሁን በቁሳቁስና በሰው ሐይል የማደራጀቱን ጉዳይ ላይ በስፋት እየሰራን እንገኛለን፡፡
በሀገር አቀፍ ደረጃ በፖሊሲ ዙሪያ ያሉ ማነቆዎችን በመለየት ከመንግስት አካላትና ከፌደራል ግብርና ሚኒስቴር ጋር በመሆን
የISSD ፕሮግራም አጋርነትን በማጠናከርና የዘርፉን ባለድርሻ አካላት በማቀራረብ የዘር ህጉ እንዲሻሻል በማድረጉ ስራ ላይ
ትልቅ ሚና እየተጫወተ ይገኛል ፡፡
በአቅም ግንባታ ዘርፍ ላይም ፕሮግራማችን በሀገር አቀፍ ደረጃ በዋነኛነት ከዩኒቨርስቲዎች ጋር በመቀናጀት ይሰራል ፕሮግራማችን
በመጀመሪያው ዙር ከ2009-2011 ባለው ጊዜ ከ40 በላይ የማስተርስ ተማሪዎችን በመደገፍ በዘር ዘርፉ ላይ ያሉትን ችግሮች
ነቅሰው በማውጣት ሳይንሳዊ መፍትሄ እንዲያቀርቡ አድርጓል፡፡ በሁለተኛው የፕሮግራሙ ምዕራፍ ደግሞ 4የዶክትሬት ዲግሪ
ትምህርት እድልን ሰጥቶ የአቅም ግንባታ ስራውን ቀጥሏል፡፡ ከዚህ በተጨማሪ በአለም ላይ በዘር ዘርፉ ውስጥ ስኬታማ የሚባሉ
ሀገሮችን ልምድ ወደ ሀገራችን ለማምጣት ከግብርና ቢሮ፤ ከምርምር ማዕከላት፣ ከዘር አባዢዎችና ሌሎች ባለድርሻ አካላት የተለያዩ
ባለሙያዎችን ወደ ውጪ ሀገር በመውሰድ ልምዶችን ቀስመው በኛ ሀገር አግባብ በመተርጎም እንዲጠቀሙ የማድረግ ስራን ሰርቷል፡፡
በዘር ግብይት ዘርፍም ቀደም ብሎ የነበረውን ባለ ረጅም ሰንሰለት የግብይት ሂደት ለማሻሻል የቀጥተኛ
የዘር ግብይት ሂደትን በማስተዋወቅ ጊዜንና ጉልበትን ቆጥቦ ተጠያቂነትን በመፍጠር ዘርን በቀጥታ ለአርሶ
አደሩ የማድረስ ስራን በሙከራ ደረጃ እየሰራን እንገኛለን እስከ አሁንም አመርቂ ውጤቶች አግኝተናል፡፡
በአጠቃላይ የተቀናጀ የዘር ዘርፍ ልማት ፕሮግራም ሁሉን አቀፍ የሆነና የዘር ዘርፉ ማነቆ የሆኑበትን ችግሮች ከስር እስከ ላይ ድረስ
ለመቅረፍ ቆርጦ የተነሳ ፕሮግራም ነው፡፡ በመጨረሻም ድር ቢያብር አንበሳ ያስር ነውና ጣት በመጠቋቆም ሳይሆን በመተባበር፤
ችግሮችን ነቅሶ በማውጣትና በመወያየት ይህንን ለእድገታችን ትልቅ አስተዋፆ የሚያደርግ ዘርፍ መደገፍ ይጠበቅብናል ፡፡

በአቅም ግንባታ ዘርፍ ላይም ፕሮግራማችን በሀገር አቀፍ ደረጃ በዋነኛነት ከዩኒቨርስቲዎች ጋር በመቀናጀት ይሰራል ፕሮግራማችን
በመጀመሪያው ዙር ከ2009-2011 ባለው ጊዜ ከ40 በላይ የማስተርስ ተማሪዎችን በመደገፍ በዘር ዘርፉ ላይ ያሉትን ችግሮች
ነቅሰው በማውጣት ሳይንሳዊ መፍትሄ እንዲያቀርቡ አድርጓል፡፡ በሁለተኛው የፕሮግራሙ ምዕራፍ ደግሞ 4የዶክትሬት ዲግሪ
ትምህርት እድልን ሰጥቶ የአቅም ግንባታ ስራውን ቀጥሏል፡፡ ከዚህ በተጨማሪ በአለም ላይ በዘር ዘርፉ ውስጥ ስኬታማ የሚባሉ
ሀገሮችን ልምድ ወደ ሀገራችን ለማምጣት ከግብርና ቢሮ፤ ከምርምር ማዕከላት፣ ከዘር አባዢዎችና ሌሎች ባለድርሻ አካላት የተለያዩ
ባለሙያዎችን ወደ ውጪ ሀገር በመውሰድ ልምዶችን ቀስመው በኛ ሀገር አግባብ በመተርጎም እንዲጠቀሙ የማድረግ ስራን ሰርቷል፡፡
በዘር ግብይት ዘርፍም ቀደም ብሎ የነበረውን ባለ ረጅም ሰንሰለት የግብይት ሂደት ለማሻሻል የቀጥተኛ
የዘር ግብይት ሂደትን በማስተዋወቅ ጊዜንና ጉልበትን ቆጥቦ ተጠያቂነትን በመፍጠር ዘርን በቀጥታ ለአርሶ
አደሩ የማድረስ ስራን በሙከራ ደረጃ እየሰራን እንገኛለን እስከ አሁንም አመርቂ ውጤቶች አግኝተናል፡፡
በአጠቃላይ የተቀናጀ የዘር ዘርፍ ልማት ፕሮግራም ሁሉን አቀፍ የሆነና የዘር ዘርፉ ማነቆ የሆኑበትን ችግሮች ከስር እስከ ላይ ድረስ
ለመቅረፍ ቆርጦ የተነሳ ፕሮግራም ነው፡፡ በመጨረሻም ድር ቢያብር አንበሳ ያስር ነውና ጣት በመጠቋቆም ሳይሆን በመተባበር፤
ችግሮችን ነቅሶ በማውጣትና በመወያየት ይህንን ለእድገታችን ትልቅ አስተዋፆ የሚያደርግ ዘርፍ መደገፍ ይጠበቅብናል ፡፡
Read more:http://www.hu.edu.et/hu/Downloads/Pdf/issd2.pdf

ሃዋሳ ግንቦት 03/2005 የሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርስቲ በ2006 የትምህርት ዘመን በድህረ ምረቃ ደረጃ አዳዲስ ፕሮግራሞችን ለመክፈት እየተዘጋጀ መሆኑን አስታወቀ፡፡ ዩኒቨርሰቲው የቅበላ አቅሙን ለማሳደግም 2 ቢሊዮን ብር በሚጠጋ በጀት የማስፋፊያ ግንባታ በማካሄድ ላይ ነው፡፡ ዩኒቨርስቲው የሚከፍታቸው አዳዲስ ኘሮግራሞች በጋዜጠኝነትና ማስ ኮሚኒኬሽን፣ በሶሻል ሳይኮሎጂ እንዲሁም በጎልማሶች ትምህርትና የህብረተሰብ ልማት ዘርፎች ነው፡፡ ለሶስቱ አዳዲስ የትምህርት ፕሮግራሞች የተቀረጹትን ስርዓተ ትምህርቶችን ለማዳበር ዛሬ በሀዋሳ ከተማ በተዘጋጀው መድረክ ላይ በዩኒቨርስቲው የሶሻል ሳይንስና ሂውማኒቲስ ኮሌጅ ዲን ዶክተር ንጉሴ መሸሻ እንዳስታወቁት በድህረ ምረቃ ደረጃ የሚከፈቱት እነዚህ ፕሮግራሞች በየትምህርት ዘርፉ ሀገሪቱን ወደተሻለ አቅጣጫ እንድትጓዝ የሚያስችሉ ብቁና ተወዳደሪ ምሁራን ለማፍራት ከፍተኛ አስተዋጾኦ አላቸው፡፡ በተለይ በጋዜጠኝናትና ማስ ኮሚኒኬሽን የስልጠና መስክ የዕድገትና የፖለቲካ ተግባቦት ፣ የማስታወቂያና የህዝብ ግነኙነትን ሲያካትት በሶሻል ሳይኮሎጂ ዘርፍ ደግሞ ወደፊት በሀገሪቱ ስለሚኖረው የማህበረሰባዊ ስነልቦና እና ሊከሰቱ የሚችሉ ችግሮች በማጥናት ብሎም ዜጎች በትክክለኛው መንገድ እንዲገዙ ለማስቻል ታስቦ የተዘጋጁ መሆናቸውን ገልጸዋል፡፡ የጎልማሶች ትምህርትና የህብረተሰብ ልማት ዘርፍም በሀገሪቱ ያልተማሩ ዜጎችን ለማብቃት የጎልማሶች ትምህርት ከማህበረሰብ እደገትና ልማት ጋር አብሮ ለማስኬድ የሚስችሉ ብቁ ሙሁራን ለማፍራት ከፍተኛ አስተዋጸኦ እንዳለው ተናግረዋል፡፡ በፈጣን የእድገት እንቅስቃሴ ላይ የሚገኘው የሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርሰቲ ሀገሪቱ በምትፈልገው የዕድገት ጎዳና እንድትጓዝ የበኩላቸውን ድርሻ ለመወጣት ጠንክረው እየሰሩ መሆናቸው ዶክተር ንጉሴ አመልክተው ሶስቱ አዳዲስ ፕሮግራሞቹን ከ2006 መስከረም ወር ጀምሮ ይከፈታሉ ብለዋል፡፡ ለዚህም ከስርዓተ ትምህርት ዝግጅት ባሻገር ለፕሮግራሞቹ የሚመጥኑ ብቁ መምህራን፣ የተሟላ ቤተ መጻህፍት፣ የመማሪያ ክህሎችና ሌሎችን የትምህርት ግብአቶችን የማደራጀት ስራ አጠናክረው መቀጠላቸውን ጠቁመዋል፡፡ በእያንዳንዱ የትምህርት ፕሮግራም 15 ተማሪዎችን በመቀበል ለሁለት አመታት እንደሚሰለጥኑ አብራርተዋል፡፡ የሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርስቲ ፕሬዚዳንት ዶክተር ዮሴፍ ማሞ በበኩላቸው በተለይ የሀገሪቱን የዴሞክራሲ ሂደት እየቀጠለ ባለበት ብቃት ያለው ጋዜጠኛ ወሳኝነት እንዳለው አመልክተው ለዚህም በድህረ ምረቃ ደረጃ የሚከፍተው የጋዜጣኝነትና ማስ ኮሚኒኬሽን ፕሮግራም ትልቅ ፋይዳ አላው ብለዋል፡፡ ሶስቱም አዳዲስ ፕሮግራሞች የዩኒቨርሰቲው ሴኒት ካጸደቀው በኋላ በሚቀጥለው አመት መግቢያ ላይ ተግባራዊ እንደሚሆን ጠቁመው የተዘጋጁት ስርዓተ ትምህርቶችም በዩኒቨርሰቲው ምሁራን በሚገባ ከታዩ በኋላ አሁን ደግሞ በውጪ ምሁራን እንዲተችበትና እንዲዳብር እየተደረገ መሆኑን ገልጠዋል፡፡ የዩኒቨርሰቲው የቅበላ አቅም በመደበኛ የትምህርት ፕሮግራሞች አሁን ያሉትን 17ሺህ 500 ተማሪዎች በዕድገትና ትራንስፎርሜሽን ዕቅድ የመጨረሻ አመር ወደ 26 ሺህ ለማድረስ በአምስቱም ካምፓሶች ሁለት ቢሊዮን ብር በሚጠጋ ገንዘብ የማስፋፊያ ፕሮጀክቶች ግንባታ እያካሄዱ መሆናቸውን አመልክተዋል፡፡ የሚቀበላቸው ተማሪዎችም የመንግስት የትኩረት አቅጣጫ በመከተል 70 በመቶ የሳይንስና ቴክኖሎጂ ቀሪው 30 በመቶ ደግሞ የማህበራዊ ሳይንስ መሆኑን ገልፀዋል፡፡ የዩኒቨርስቲው ራዕይ በኢትዮጵያ ቀዳሚ፣ በአፍሪካ ተመራጭና በአለም አቀፍ ደረጃም ታዋቂና ተቀባይነት ያለው ለማድረግ ሰፋፊ ፕሮግራሞችን ነድፈው ውጤታማ ሥራ በማከናወን ላይ መሆናቸውን አስረድተዋል፡፡ የተዘጋጁትን ስርዓተ ትምህርቶች ለማዳበር ዛሬ ለአንድ ቀን በተዘጋጀው መድረክ ከዩኒቨርሰቲው ውጪ በመጡ ባለድርሻ አካላት ተተችቶ ጠቃሚ የማዳበሪያ ሀሳብ መገኘቱንም የመድረኩ አሰተባባሪዎች ገልጸዋል፡፡
http://www.ena.gov.et/Story.aspx?ID=7841&K=1
Hailemariam Fires Justice Minister

Justice Minister Brehan Hailu has been fired from his job on Friday, May 10, 2013, reliable sources disclosed to Fortune. Brehan has received a letter from the Prime Minister's Office, signed by Hailemariam Desalegn, late on Friday, according to these sources. Brehan has been serving in this capacity since 2005. He was moved to Justice after his previous ministry, Ministry of Information, was dissolved by law.

However, the decision to remove the Minister from Office has come as little surprise in the government circle. He has lost his position in the powerful executive committee of the ruling EPRDF, when elections were held back in March 2013. He was under fire during a convention of his party, the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM), held in Bahir Dar in March, held as a prelude to the EPRDF congress, which was held in the same city.

Seconded by a member to the central committee seat in the ANDM, Brehan was harshly criticized by the bigwigs of the party for his failure and incompetence while serving at the Justice Ministry.
Brehan has not been immediately available for comment, despite Fortune's repeated attempts.
Ethiopians on Twitter have started a campaign to demand the right to peaceful protest. Using the hashtags #Demonstration4Every1 and #Assembly4Every1, a group of online activists are calling on their government to respect an article in Ethiopia's constitution guaranteeing freedom of assembly for citizens.
 
According to human rights groups, the Ethiopian government has led a crackdown on political protests since declaring a state of emergency after the 2005 elections. There have also been accounts of media censorship, including reports that Al Jazeera's English and Arabic websites have been blocked since July 2012.
http://stream.aljazeera.com/story/201305102100-0022747
Addis Ababa — Several Ethiopian publications are coming together to set up a 'press council' with the hope of easing restrictions on the media in Ethiopia.
The journalists suggested the idea of the council at a May 3 meeting held at the behest of the Ministry of Information to discuss media reforms in the country.
"The meeting was the first time we have had such a direct and open dialogue with the government over press issues," Getachew Worku, editor of the independent publication Ethio Mihidar, told IPS. "We have to welcome this development as a positive step to ease press restrictions."
The press council will be formed by editors of government and independent publications. The purpose of the council is to hold discussions about press restrictions and foster direct and frequent dialogue with the government over such issues.
Worku said there were still many obstacles for the press to operate freely in Ethiopia. He said, for example, that he could not use government printing houses and was forced to use private companies to print his newspaper.
"This really increases our costs and makes it very difficult for us to operate," Worku said. "This is unfair considering the government publications can operate at much lower costs and avoid going bankrupt."
Worku also said a major problem in Ethiopia was the arbitrary distribution of publication licences. "Although it is easy to write about fashion and entertainment, it is very difficult to write about politics," he told IPS. "If you want to write about politics, it is much harder to obtain a license and there is far more pressure from the authorities."
Since he launched his publication, Worku said, the authorities have frequently visited his office demanding information regarding his accounts, and he hopes that the meeting and the new council will be able to reduce some of these obstacles.
"This is one of the most mature and useful consultations we have had with the media," Shimeles Kemal from the Ministry of Information told IPS. "The media brought up many important criticisms of themselves, and also of the government, which we will consider with due weight and respond to in a serious manner as we continue to engage with the media."
Despite the government's promises, some journalists are less hopeful it will bring about any change. Independent journalist Anania Sorri told IPS he believed that the government agreed to the meeting and council merely to distract the media from aspirations for real change.
"It is hard to believe the government is genuine about its desire for press freedom," Sorri said. "Just look at the current situation journalists are facing."
Sorri's close friend Reeyot Alemu, winner of this year's World Press Freedom Prize, is in prison. She was initially sentenced to 14 years after being found guilty of planning terrorist attacks, laundering money and working with terrorist organisations.
On appeal, two charges were dropped and her sentence was reduced to five years.
Sorri told IPS that Alemu has health complications, including a breast tumour, gastritis, and sinusitis. And recently, prison officials threatened her with solitary confinement if she leaked information about prison conditions to visitors.
International organisations have long criticised the Ethiopian government for its treatment of the independent media. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that seven journalists are currently in detention in Ethiopia, and that more reporters have fled Ethiopia than any other country, putting the total at 79 between August 2001 and May 2011.
In response to critics, the government has accused many of the journalists it imprisons of crossing a line between journalism and illegal activities. State officials have accused critics of over-simplifying things and failing to understand the real situation on the ground.
One of the most controversial cases is that of prominent blogger and government critic Eskinder Nega. Just last week his appeal was rejected and his 18-year sentence was upheld.
Nega was arrested in September 2011 and charged with plotting an Arab Spring revolution through his writings and a speech he gave at a conference organised by opposition groups. Just before his arrest he had published a piece calling for the government to respect freedom of assembly and to end torture in prisons.
"Because there is no judicial independence, no justice can be found in the courts in politically motivated prosecutions, as shown by the recent Supreme Court decision to uphold an 18-year sentence for Eskinder Nega," Leslie Lefkow, Ethiopia expert at Human Rights Watch, told IPS.
"The impact of this multi-pronged campaign is that access to news and information remains very restricted for all Ethiopians, and the level of self-censorship and fear of government surveillance is extraordinarily high."
However, in the case of Nega, one local analyst said he deserved to be punished as he had incited violence and created ethnic tensions in the past. Daniel Berhane, a prominent Ethiopian blogger, told IPS that journalists like Nega were aligned with political parties.
He stated that, "the three newspapers that Eskinder Nega published until 2005 - Askual, Menelik and Satenaw - were characterised by yellow journalism and serious ethical flaws."
Local journalists say that before widespread anti-government protests following the 2005 national elections, the media climate was free. After the protests, though, the government clamped down on independent media publications as well as civil society groups and any opposition.
Then the government introduced anti-terrorism laws, which have been used to charge journalists who have had any contact with opposition groups or journalists in exile, who according to the government have ties with terrorist outfits.
Several Muslim journalists have also been charged under the anti-terrorism law, after reporting on Muslim protests early this year. Also, newspapers aligned with opposition groups have repeatedly been shut down as the government pressures publishing houses not to print their papers, opposition politicians told IPS.
After the recent meeting with the government about the future press council, attendees told IPS that the government officials said they were tired of arresting media representatives - giving cause for hope that the situation might soon change.
But while journalists try to form the press council and hope the meeting will ease many of the restrictions, it appears the situation remains far from ideal, as journalists remain behind bars and independent reporters face myriad difficulties.
"Press freedom is a luxury for us; the government says we are a developmental democracy state but actually we are just a developmental state," Sorri told IPS.
"They want the development, but just the material part. They want to put food in our mouths, but they don't want to hear anything come out of our mouths."
http://allafrica.com/stories/201305100984.html?viewall=1
Photo by http://commonriver.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/sr-under-tree1.jpg

Introduction to Sidama Religion by Kifle WANSAMO
(culled from www.sidamaconcern.com/country/religion_and_beliefs.htm)



 
3.The elements of Response in the Sidama Religion

1. Introduction
This paper results from the research project carried out in 1996. Different notable personalities, community leaders and elders were interviewed in different parts of the region. Through this work the author, a Sidama himself, hopes that the article will help those who are interested in carrying out further study in the field in the future. The presentation below is restricted to the foundational elements of the Sidamas’ faith and the way the Sidamas live out this faith.

The Sidama nation is located in the north-east Africa, the now southern Ethiopia. Customarily, the Sidama people have been agriculturalist and semi-pastoralist. However, today, because of the high density of population and education, pastoral life is disappearing. The Sidama land is located between 4500 - 10000ft above sea level, and is marked by three climatic zones: lowlands, midlands, and highlands all supporting different activities and life styles. About 90% of the Sidamas live in rural areas with the substantial number being adherents of Sidama religion. There exist the followers of Christianity and Islam.
The social organization in Sidama is changing because of the education, political changes, contacts with different people from other regions and provinces and religions. This phenomenon also affects their cherished values, such as the rule of Halaale (truth), the government of the elders, dialogical and consensus based method of problem solving, and the fear (respect) of Magano (God).

2. Elements of Faith in the Sidama Religion

God, spirits, and ancestors are the foundational elements of faith for the Sidamas and are the constitutive part of their life.

2.1. Belief in God

God is named as Magano. The word magano is a compound word of ma and gano. Ma means "what" and gano has three meanings: as a noun it means conspiracy; when used as a verb it means I beat and I say or call or name. The approximate meaning of the compound word Magano can be "What can I call?" or "What can I say?" It indicates a deep experience of incomprehensible and incomparable God. It could be that the original person, unable to express the experience, resolved by calling Magano, "What can I say or call?" Magano is addressed by the Sidamas as father. Other attributes for Magano are Kalaqa (the Creator), Kaaliqa (the Almighty) and Halalancho (the True One). There exists one, supreme, and universal Magano. He alone created all that a person could see around: humankind, nature, animals, birds, heaven, sun, moon, stars, and so on. The Sidamas make a clear distinction between God and their common ancestors saying that the ancestors were created by Magano. They say that "Magano had created and taken them away". Even during their sacrificial offering to their common ancestors Magano comes first before the ancestors' names.
An elaborate story of creation is not what is typical of Sidamas. Some clans attribute a mythical element and special power to their common ancestors, such as claiming a descent from heaven or emergence from earth. Yet every Sidama, if asked about the one responsible for creation, he/she automatically replies that Magano is the one who created all.
The Sidamas generally agree that in the beginning God used to live with people. As the result of sin they committed, Magano departed far away into the sky. Even then Magano is perceived as being actively involved in human life for which reason people continue reconciling themselves with God through sacrificial offerings until today. Magano is called daily in different situations. For instance, people say Maganu wolqai... (In God's power...), Magano anna’ya kaa’li’e (God, my father, help me), Maganu kaa’lona (may God help), and so forth.
The Sidamas possess no statues or images of Magano. For them Magano, though active in their life, cannot be represented. Generally Magano’s name is feared or highly respected and is not called for wrong intentions (e.g. cheating, telling lies, stealing). But one can observe some mischievous people or thieves swearing in Magano’s name to hide themselves from being discovered when they are suspected of such acts. Theft itself is a recent experience for the Sidama people.
There is no special day (like Sunday for Christians) for worshiping Magano. Apart from daily invocation of Magano’s name individuals such as the family heads make burnt offering for thanksgiving without any obligation or time set by a special authority. Communal burnt and sacrificial offerings take place at a particular moment and are dependent on the situations provoking them. More than offerings Magano demands good behavior because one often hears people saying "Do not do that for it displeases Magano" or "Magano will get angry". It is only the act of responding to Magano either in thanksgiving or asking forgiveness that people make animal offerings. The Sidamas see their Magano as a true loving father, the one who really cares for his children. They also experience Him as merciful and believe that He forgives their trespasses when they ask for forgiveness. Sprinkling of the blood of the sacrificial lamb is a sign of reconciliation with Magano and with each other.

2.2. Belief in Spirits

The Sidamas believe that there exist good and bad spirits. The good spirit, dancha Ayyaana, is identified as God's spirit, as the spirit coming from God. This manifests how Magano is perceived as being present in the people's daily life. Maganu Ayyaana, God’s Spirit, is presented as real and playing the role of giving life and blessings. Without Magano’s name, the spirit is not mentioned. One can certainly think that the hierarchical structure that exists within the community (i.e. ancestors - clan elders and religious leaders - parents - children) reflects the degree of the presence of Maganu Ayyaana. Consequently, a common ancestor is conceived as having Maganu Ayyaana abundantly and is made like divine. He lives with Magano and plays the role of a mediator between Magano and his people. Tribal elders and religious leaders are also filled with Maganu Ayyaana. The bad spirit, Busha Ayyaana, is also seen as real and is hated by the religious leaders and community elders. They curse it whenever they offer sacrifice to Magano. They command saying, Busha ayaana gobbatee ba’i (Bad spirit, go away from the world!) and Magano busha ayaana gobbatee huni (God destroy the bad spirit from the world". The term sheexaane is a borrowed name from the Christians to refer to the bad spirit and is widely used. The Sidama People also say that evil spirits can cause diseases but cannot cure them. Consequently, some Sidamas fear the evil spirits. The individuals called qaallo are seen as the medium of the bad spirits through which communication with them is enhanced. In order to avoid getting sickness some people give animals (male sheep or goats). These spirits have recognition only in a family setting and not in the community setting. There is no community acceptance of them.
There also exists a female spirit, belonging to mothers-in-law, prayed and honored by women alone. They make food offering to it, sing and dance (always at night and under a tree). They call it woxa. It is a cult of fertility. At child birth, mothers-in-law say: ane woxa tirtohe - let my spirit help you for safe delivery. Sometimes when a dream occurs telling of eventual dangers such as war or plague or drought, women also make an offering (always food) and pray to this invisible mother-in-law spirit. However, they never associate it with being Magano but see it as another existing reality. They are aware that Magano alone is the Supreme. At the same time they believe that this mother-in-law spirit can protect them from the evil spirits and help them during their delivery. The food offered is expected to be eaten by the hyenas in the absence of women. The significance of this requires further investigation.

2.3. Belief in Ancestors

The Sidamas believe that the ancestors live with Magano, who granted them special power to act. They play a mediating role. However, daily practice of praying to Magano directly or daily calling of Magano’s name and spirit renders the ancestors’ involvement superfluous and reveals Magano’s direct involvement in the life of the people. During the time of supplication Magano’s name takes precedence and that of an ancestor comes next. Since the Sidama people are organized according to clans, the common ancestor of each clan receives special respect and is paid homage in terms of appreciation that the people came into existence through his instrumentality. The Sidamas, being a patriarchal society, attribute power and authority to men alone. Equal respect and homage is not given to women ancestors. Common ancestors are regarded as very much blessed and filled with Magano's spirit, living in a state of divine. A lot of animals are periodically offered to them as a sacrifice.
Apart from acting as mediators, the common ancestors are seen as blessing and protecting the people and their ethical and religious values. They communicate with their people through dreams and warn them against human abuses of the defenseless, animals, and nature. Whoever dreams a dream, if the dream touches a situation implicating a clan or the nation, spiritual leaders call their councils and examine the dream carefully. If they conclude that the dream truly touches the reality existing within the clan or the nation, they give directions to the people on what to do. They also make an offering to Magano asking for forgiveness and protection from the eventual dangers. The following example illustrates these points.
During an interview with one elder called Ribbo talked about a recent dream dreamt by someone from Holloo clan. The dream was being carefully studied by the clan’s spiritual leaders called Gaana and Woma.[1] And the dream goes as follows: a horse, cow, and dog were pleading in Magano's presence. When Magano asked about their problems, they explained a miserable life they were living in. The horse complained that the areas reserved for the horses to graze (always along the rivers) were no more there. There were now fences everywhere that they could not move as before. The cow complained that the areas reserved for them were shared by the people and that they had no place to move and feed upon. The dog complained that people used to give them food but now no one cared for them. Instead, everyone chased them away and that they were dying of hunger. Magano asked the common ancestor of Holloo clan, who is called Aabo, about the issue. The ancestor replied to Magano that he was going to ask his representatives, the Gaana and Woma.
This dream is to be understood in the Sidama cultural context. It is already noted that the Sidamas used to be semi-pastoralist people. Because of the high population growth, all free places are being occupied. The lands left free for communal use have been divided and shared. People with small pieces of land are very much affected for they lack enough grazing places for their cattle. In the past, all the areas along the rivers were free for the horses to graze. Now it is becoming very narrow and the number of horses as well as cattle is decreasing. Certainly many Sidama people do not like dogs and chase them away. This dream does reflect the reality. The story shows how the Sidamas conceive the relationship between Magano and the common ancestors. The mediator role of the common ancestors is shown in the story. Moreover, even animals are shown receiving Magano’s concern.
The immediate dead parents also receive respect and veneration. A grand-father is also remembered. A person offers a bull for his dead father and to a certain degree he also remembers his dead mother. They are seen as being part of the family still living. They play a role of mediating, blessing, and protecting the family from misfortunes.
Thus far we have seen the elements of faith in Sidama Religion, we now proceed to the faith responses which the Sidamas make in their lives.

3. The Elements of Response in the Sidama Religion

Morality, prayer and sacrifice reflect the faith of the Sidama people. And this section explains what these elements are.

3.1. Morality

Morality and religion are identified in the Sidama culture so much so that outsiders may not recognize the existence of monotheistic religion in it. Consequently, they would easily regard the Sidamas as animists.[2] Many of the missionaries have spoken and some have even written about the people as animists and today some still hold this idea with conviction. However, for a thorough observer and sensitive person, the opposite is true. For Sidamas, morality holds a holistic approach: relationship among individuals, with God, and vis-a-vis creation (land, animals, plants, trees, ...). The dictums, Gafo ikkanno and Maganu di-baxxanno (God does not like it), are the keys that regulate individual’s attitude towards the "other". At all times a Sidama person would never fail to mention God's name. For example, Magano anna'ya ati afootto; Hai Magano anna'ya; Maganu lao; Maganu kaa'lo,... [in a respective order: God, my Father, You know it all; O God, my Father; May God see or witness; May God help,...].
One cannot find a commandment taught and imposed on the people saying that there is only one Magano to worship and everyone must worship Him. One does not receive or learn the values and practices of Sidama through formal teaching, but learns the ways of behaving and even beliefs and practices from elders through hearing comments about acts, following the elders, and also being reprimanded or physically punished if one acted in an unacceptable way. All passed through customary practices. In other words, the social structures contribute to the young ones to grow in conformity to the cultural values. Seeing, listening to, and following mark children's behavior. As they grow up they, consciously or unconsciously, assimilate and interiorize all the cultural values and practices. Grand-parents and mothers play a role in helping their children to grow in the socially accepted ways. Elder brothers and sisters also help their younger ones.
Elders are generally respected. There has existed a harmonious and supportive relationship between parents and children or the older generation and the younger one. However, today young people, due to different factors such as education, political ideologies, new fundamentalist churches and so forth are diluting the force of the relationship which previously existed between the two generations.
Killing a Sidama person by a Sidama is prohibited. Unfortunately, this value  is changing because of the political motivations imposed from outside. For instance, if some people are seen as a threat to Ethiopian government, those who promote the interest of the government would seek to eliminate them.
Adultery and fornication have been also strictly forbidden. Virginity for a girl has been a value honored very much until today. It is considered a very shameful thing for the parents if their daughter is discovered to have lost her virginity. A virgin girl is considered as equal to a man. During marriage people talk of making a girl a woman as if she was never a woman. But if she is not a virgin, she loses her respect and pride, and under customarily setting, she often becomes a second wife and remains under the kindness of her husband. No dowry will be paid for the family. Today, however, because of education there is more relaxation and contact between boys and girls. The educated group does not put emphasis on virginity as a necessary condition for paying dowry and for marriage. As for adultery, Sidama people have lived according to family, sub-clan, and clan level. Those who belonged to one clan regarded themselves as brothers and sisters, and sleeping with the wife of one’s brother was unacceptable and a taboo.
Truth is highly regarded. The expression Halaale gorsitooti [don't abuse or diminish truth] carries with it a deep respect for truth. Maybe this is because truth is also associated with Magano. The people believe that a person who takes offence against truth will certainly suffer the consequence. This is manifested in the expression, Halaalu annasi di-hawao. The exact translation of the expression into English is difficult, but it implies that truth itself will take revenge against the offender and bring justice to the offended. It also means that the one who walks in the truth will win. This is a principal reason for respecting the property of others and refraining oneself from speaking false things. There exist, however, some dishonest people and thieves, who falter this value within the Sidama people.
The consecrated people practice three days fasting before the new year feast, Fichee. Customarily the Sidama people do not practice of fasting, and even the fasting of the consecrated people could be because of their being too busy reconciling and solving problems in the community before the new year.
A holy man is a man who avoids bad words and acts in a good (acceptable) way. He is respected and considered as being blessed and loved by Magano. Maganu maassi'no manchoti, Maganu battino manchoti, Maganu battino bettoti, Maganu maassi'no bettoti are the common expressions. The Sidamas consider Magano as fully involved in people's daily life. With this and other reasons which I have directly or indirectly mentioned, I conclude that for the Sidamas morality and religion are one. Fr. Markos Beyene, a Sidama priest, rightly observed and wrote in his unpublished article - 'A Christian Approach to Traditional Religion in Sidama Area"' - saying that 'the Sidama people see the direct action of God in creation more than the natural laws. Everything comes from God...the fulfillment and success in life is achieved only by the will of God (...). They believe that if people misbehave God goes away from them' [p.8].
Meaningful life is understood as doing good things and passing life (procreating). Every young man is expected to get married and beget children. This is very much valued.
Generally elders, the cimeeyye, try to live an exemplary life. Wherever hatred or quarreling exist the elders bring reconciliation. They solve problems; they take care of social affairs, look after the needs of the widows and the weak, and maintain justice and peace. Misbehaving results in disturbing a harmonious relationship that exists between God and the people, among the people themselves, and among them and their ancestors.
Apart from the consecrated ones (e.g., Ga'ro and Qqaddo)[3] one has to be at least 50 years old and a circumcised in order to assume the position of a community elders.[4] The good life a person lives determines his position or importance. One can be the eldest in the community but if his way of living is not appreciated he cannot play a role of an elder (cimeessa), who is a very much feared and respected. This is explained in the expression, "chimeesu chilo itisano" [The elder can make a person eat faeces].
Many other practices such as hospitality, respect to foreigners, ceremonies during birth, marriage, funerals, and festivals that exist in the Sidama culture are left for future study.

3.2. Prayer and Sacrifice

People pray to Magano individually or communally. Individual prayers can be done with or without sacrificial offerings. But communal prayers are always accompanied by sacrifices. During communal offerings the consecrated people act as the celebrants. If it is at the sub-clan level, unless there exists a consecrated person, a notable elder leads the community into prayer. The Sidamas follow twenty seven important "moments", which are called ayyaana, in a month. They are followed through the position of the stars. Only some particular men called the ayyaanto (astrologists) know how to follow the stars and discover the types of ayyaana. Each ayana is used for a special function: ayyaana for marriage, for feast, for war, for success, and so forth. The ayyaana for offering sacrifice to Magano are either adula or gutcha. The ayyaanto and the consecrated people whose duty is to look after the issues of their people, direct most of their activities according to the ayyaana. Individuals consult these people to know, for example, when weddings should take place.
Two types of sacrifices exist within the Sidama religion: one is offered to Magano and the other is to the ancestors.

3.2.1. Sacrifice Offered to Magano

Burnt offering: As thanksgiving and asking for blessing the Sidamas offer this sacrifice to Magano. It is offered individually (e.g., a family head) and communally (e.g., at the sub-clan or clan level). A male animal, a lamb or a bull, is killed and burnt. Before slaughtering, the person in charge starts with a prayer of blessing and mentions reasons for such gathering and offerings. For example, he mentions the good things (blessings) Magano has done for his country, his nation, and his clan. Then the animal is killed. The celebrant, while burning the animal, calls Magano’s name and says (the content is dependent on the intention):
Magano, itoommo, agoommo, duwoommo. Tini xinino, tini shilqqo, atera iilitohe ... Gobba'ya gowi, keere assi, ge'issi, gada'ya geedo'ya seeki, gobbate, saadate kaaya kaayoma qqoli. [God, I have eaten, I have drunk, I am satisfied. Let this burnt offering reach you.... Unite my country, bring peace and stability, bless my generation and the coming generation, and domestic animals].
At the family level, the family-head offers the sacrifice to thank Magano for all the blessings (e.g., children, wealth, good fortunes) he has received from Him. While burning the animal he says, "My Father, take this. Let it reach you. It is for you, and take it." He also prays for more blessings. Some individuals who prayed during their suffering, such as barrenness and serious sickness, offer the burnt offering sacrifice to Magano when their prayer is answered. These people had promised Magano an animal if He would respond to their prayers, if He would come to their help. Women and young men bring their promises to the spiritual leaders who would offer on their behalf.
Blood offering: This is done communally for the purpose of purification, reconciliation and protection from bad things such as enemies, drought, and plague. If something which is considered as grave offense against human beings, and indirectly against Magano, within a sub-clan or a clan by an individual or the individuals, the community offers this type of sacrifice. When those with the gift of foreseeing tell the eminent danger (e.g., war, plague, drought) or when a dream revealing the eminent danger occurs, the consecrated people organize the sacrifice. If the people are suffering because of plague or drought, the consecrated people make supplication through blood sacrifice.
The ritual of this type takes place in the following ways:
The consecrated people choose and announce the day of the sacrifice, the ayyaana, and the place where the sacrifice will take place. On the day of the sacrifice people gather together. The sacrificial animal is prepared. A consecrated person presides over the activity. The presider opens the ceremony by welcoming people and telling them the reason of the gathering. After this, everyone with grudges and quarrels comes foreword and presents his cases. They are listened to and the matters are solved. In other words, people are reconciled with one another. A prayer for the forgiveness of the sins of the people is offered to Magano. The presider prays concerning the needs of the community and slaughters the animal. The blood of the animal is collected and sprinkled to the sky, to the earth, and onto the people as the sign of reconciliation. While sprinkling the blood with a branch of a particular tree, the presider addresses to God and says:
Gatisi, xummisi, gobba gatis, Holloo, Hawela, Faqsa, Alata, Sawola Qwena gatis ... [Save us, purify us, save...(here he mentions each clan of the nation by name).]
With this act the people are reconciled with Magano and with the earth, which is regarded as mother, and with themselves. Thus, they are purified from their guilt. They also make their supplication to Magano. Then a small piece of meat is taken before removing the skin. The presider takes and raises the meat, tastes it, and passes it to the elders. After this the meat is cut, roasted and cooked, and everyone present in the gathering consumes it. Finally, the future issues of the community are discussed. The presider concludes and the people go to their home.

3.2.2. Sacrifice Offered to the Ancestors

The Sidama people show their gratitude to their ancestors through sacrificial offerings. At the communal, clan level, the offering is done to the common ancestors. At the family level, the husband fattens a bull and offers it for his father. Bulls are slaughtered in several numbers periodically as a sacrifice of thanksgiving for the blessings received from the common ancestors and for their continuous presence among the people. At the same occasion, people also ask for their continuous blessings and presence. For instance, the people of Holloo clan offer their sacrifice to their common ancestor after every seven years.
During an interview with an eighty-eight years old elder from the Holloo clan concerning the sacrifice, he says that their common ancestor does not demand that the people must bring animals for sacrifice. But individuals who possess animals want to keep a bull among their cattle in gratitude for the blessings they have received from their common ancestor. Moreover, out of the sacrifice the ancestor wants the poor in the society to feast on meat, for they rarely get it. So it is a joyful moment for the poor to gather together with others and enjoy meat to the full. Both the poor and the rich alike celebrate together, and carry the remains back to their homes.
When the bulls are killed the blood is poured on the tomb of the ancestor. Those who received favours (e.g., children) they had asked from Magano or the ancestor also bring whatever they had promised . The lambs brought on this account are killed and burnt as a thanksgiving offering to Magano, and to the ancestor if he was asked to mediate. His name is mentioned after Magano’s name.
Each individual also remembers his immediate parents, specially his father. He fattens a bull and offers it at the time he wants. At different moments he prepares honey and milk and pours them on his father's tomb and then on his mother's tomb. The grand-parents are also remembered. While offering the sacrifice the person who offers says:
gedeno'ya seeki, geedo'ya seeki, galte'ya seeki, ooso'ya seeki. Ooso'yarana saada'yara gosa'yarano kaaya abbi [Make straight my future, my wife, my children, my cattle. Bring blessings to my children, cattle and to my nation].
However, if an individual is poor, he is not obliged to do so. Responding to the question why an individual has to make an offering to his parents, an elder, Gujo No’ora, said that when a sacrificial offering is done here on earth a simultaneous gathering and celebration of the people living with Magano in heaven takes place. When one is remembered by his son, all his friends come to celebrate together. But if one is forgotten by his own, he will feel that he is like an abandoned beggar. So he communicates through a dream to his son. It is believed that if the son who possesses wealth refuses to respond to the dream, he will fall sick until he reconciles himself with his dead father. As we observe, the concern is more on a father than a mother.
An offence a father commits against somebody is perceived to affect not only himself but his children as well. If he dies without solving the problem, the case has to be solved before or after his burial by his relatives. This signifies that the familial and affective relationship continues between the living and the physically dead. The relatives organize reconciliation to heal the wound caused by their late member lest their children suffer the consequences. The dead parents are also beneficiaries of this reconciliation, for they too are perceived getting peace.
As we have already mentioned above, there are some people who offer sacrifice to the bad spirits because they fear getting sick.  This is done not to honour or venerate these spirits; they are hated, but because the people believe in their existence, they would like to appease them from causing
harm.  This is a family affair that does not involve the whole community.

3.3.3. Offering Places

Concerning the sacrifices offered to Magano on communal level, no fixed place is found. There exists neither a house nor a tent, not even an altar. All depends on the dreams specifying the place or on the indication of those who possess the gift of prophesying or on consensus. On the individual level, it is done at home not inside but outside the house of the one offering the sacrifice. As for the ancestors, the sacrifice is offered where their tombs are found. There exist in different places the shrines called hara but only houses, without statues or images, where the elders and others come to pray. The elders also conduct their meetings there. Sometimes burnt offering to Magano at the sub-clan level takes place at these shrines.

Conclusion

The Sidamas are truly Monotheist and they do not see Magano as a tribal or exclusive entity. God does speak to people through their cultures and situations. To this communication or revelation each individual or group responds according to its understanding of God and culture. God has been speaking to the Sidama people in their culture, revealing through dreams, prophets, and individuals' deep experience of the sacred. What I consider important is that be it a dream or a prophecy, but if it deals with avoiding evil, promoting human life, and bringing people closer to God it is good and a revelation. The Sidama  religion is an example of God's universal salvific act. God truly acts and Christianity is not the only way for salvation. An honest dialogue and true respect to other religions are important not only for collaboration in promoting human life and to live in harmony with others, but also to discover more the mystery of God's work to bring humankind into Himself.


Endnotes

[1] These people are the consecrated ones.  They offer sacrifices on behalf of their clans.  Each one has his own council of elders (all men).  They do not take any decision without the knowledge of their councils.  In their councils' meeting they act as moderators.  Gaana and Woma announce and execute the decisions of their respective council.  They are very much respected and their words are taken seriously by their people.  They live separately and each one has his own council.  Yet they work harmoniously  in such a way that whatever decision one takes, the other one does not oppose or act against it.  There exists constant communication between them. [2] Animism denotes the belief in many spiritual beings who are autonomous in their dealings with human beings.  It is characterized by its "particularism, a quality opposite to the universalism of the ‘great religions’, which conceive man as subject to global powers and personal destiny."  Individual divinity is attached to a particular place and person or resident in a particular creature.  "If animistic spirits anywhere exercise authority, they do so in particularistic, even egoistic fashion, sanctioning men for ritual neglect or breaking taboos, not for acts of moral neglect or secular offence.  Animistic religion do not readily coalesce with systems of political authority and probably do not favour their development."  See Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, Vol. I (Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1977), under "animism", pp. 923-4.  If Christianity is not associated with animism, one wanders why the Sidama religion is termed animistic.  Both religions venerate ancestors (e.g. Catholic and Orthodox Christians venerate the saints as the Sidamas venerate their ancestors).  The ancestors or the saints possess no autonomous power to practice over human beings unless in relation to God.  The only difference would be that the Sidamas take their ancestral veneration as a duty.  The ancestors are not seen as egoistic.  They are concerned with the well being of people.  For instance, the common ancestor of Holloo clan, Aabbo, shows concern not only to his clan but also to the whole nation and to others who ask for his help.  The Sidamas do not worship trees or stones but God alone.
[3] Ga'ro (Moote) plays the following roles: he organizes communal sacrifices if war or drought or plague occurs, commands the army during war, reconciles if two clans are at war or tension, takes decisions on issues concerning the whole clan, solves juridical problems which cannot be solved in sub-clan level, and announces the date of the new year feast, Fitchee, and makes prayer.  Qqaddo is a collective name for Woma, Gaana, Gaadala, and Qqaarricha.  Their roles are more or less the same but with some particularity to each one.  Two of the Sidama clans do not have Woma.  The Holloo clan has created a complicated organization.  It has both Ga'ro and Qqaddo.  Except Woma the rest of the Qqaddo are not found in any other clans except in the Holloo.  Ga'ro and Qqaddo are the consecrated people who take care of the life of the whole Sidama people.  Each of them have their own council of elders.  These people are deeply religious as the elders too are notoriously religious.
[4] Elder women (Qqarubba) are respected, too.  But they do not practice authority over men.  In the Sidama culture men do not associate with women.  Consequently, women also have their own organization.  The elder women practice authority over them.  Women can change men's decision if it violates peace and harmony in the society.  The eldest woman (Qqaro) can impose a punishment if a husband abuses his wife.  The punishment cannot be reversed unless he fulfils the imposed obligation by the Qqaro.


The Author  is a Sidama specialising in Theology and Philosophy.
http://www.afrikaworld.net/afrel/sidama.htm
የኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዴሞክራያዊ ግንባር /ኢህአዴግ/ የስራ አስፈጻሚ ኮሚቴ መደበኛው ስብሰባውን ዛሬ ግንቦት 3/2005 ዓ.ም እያካሄደ ነው፡፡
ስራ አስፈጻሚ ኮሚቴው በዚሁ ስብሰባው በያዝነው አመት የተሰሩ በክልሎች የከተማና የገጠር ሪፖርት እንዲሁም የገጠር እና የከተማ ሱፐርቪዥን ሪፖርት ላይ ይወያያል፡፡
ስራ አስፈጻሚ ኮሚቴው በአጀንዳው ከያዛቸው ጉዳዮች መካከል በሚያዝያ ወር በተካሄደው የአዲስ አበባ ምክር ቤትና የአካባቢ ምርጫ አፈጻጸምን በተመለከተ ይመክራል፡፡
ከዚህም በተጨማሪ ስራ አስፈጻሚ ኮሚቴው በ9ኛው የኢህአዴግ ጉባኤ ላይ የተላለፉ ውሳኔዎችን ወደ አባላት እና ወደ ተለያዩ አካላት ለማድረስና ውሳኔዎቹን ተግባራዊ ለማድረግ በቀጣይ ሁለት አመታት የሚከናወኑ መሰረታዊ ተግባራቶችን ይዳስሳል፡፡ በወቅቱ ከቤቱ በሚነሱ አጀንዳዎች ላይ በመምከር ውሳኔዎችን በማሳለፍ ስብሰባውን ያጠቃልላል ተብሎ ይጠበቃል፡፡

ምንጭ-የኢትዮጵያ ህዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ግንባር ምክር ቤት ፅ/ቤት