POWr Social Media Icons

Friday, May 31, 2013

ሃዋሳ ግንቦት 23/2005 በሲዳማ ዞን ሸበዲኖ ወረዳ በተግባር ተኮር የጎልማሶች ትምህርት ከ5 ሺህ በላይ ጎልማሶች ትምህርታቸውን እየተከታተሉ መሆኑን የወረዳው ትምህርት ጽህፈት ቤት አስታወቀ። የጽህፈት ቤቱ ኃላፊ አቶ አዝመራ አመኑ ለኢትዮጵያ ዜና አገልግሎት እንደገለጹት በወረዳው በሚገኙ ከ35 በሚበልጡ ትምህርት ቤቶችና ጊዜያዊ የማሰተማሪያ ስፍራዎች ማንበብና መጻፍ ለማይችሉ ጎልማሶች ትምህርት እየተሰጠ ነው። በወረዳው ማንበብና መጻፍ የማይችሉ ጎልማሶችን በመለየትና ለ96 አመቻቾች የማስተማር ስነዘዴ ስልጠና በመስጠት 5 ሺህ 947 ጎልማሶች ትምህርት እየተሰጠ መሆኑን ተናግረዋል። በደረጃ አንድና ሁለት ትምህርታቸውን በመከታተል ላይ ካሉት ጎልማሶች በተጨማሪ በቀበሌ አመራሮች በልማት ቡድኖችና በአንድ ለአምስት ትስስር አማካኝነት ማንበብና መጻፍ የማይችሉ ጎልማሶች እየተለዩ መሆኑንና በአሁኑ ወቅት በወረዳው የጎልማሶች ትምህርት ሽፋን ከ56 በመቶ በላይ እንደደረሰ አቶ አዝመራ ተናግረዋል። የጎልማሶች ትምህርትን በተጠናከረ መልኩ ለማከናወን የወረዳው አስተዳደር ለአመቻቾች አስፈላጊውን ድጋፍ እያደረገ እንደሚገኝና የማስተማሪያ መጽሀፍት ግዥ በመፈጸም ለሁሉም ጣቢያዎች እንዲዳረስ ማድረጉን አስታውቀዋል። በተጨማሪም አምስትና ስድስት ዓመት የሆናቸው 23 ሺህ 233 ህጻናት በ250 አመቻቾች የቅድመ መደበኛ ትምህርት በትምህርት ቤትና ከትምህርት ቤት ውጪ በተዘጋጁ የማስተማሪያ ስፍራዎች እየተማሩ እንደሚገኙ ገልጸዋል። ልዩ ፍላጎት ያላቸውን አካል ጉዳተኞች በአካቶ የማስተማር ዘዴ ትምህርታቸውን እንዲከታተሉ 392 መስማትና ማየት የተሳናቸውና የተለያየ የአካል ጉዳት ያለባቸው ህጻናት በሰለጠኑ መምህራን እንዲማሩ መደረጉን አቶ አዝመራ ጠቁመዋል። የወረዳው ዋና አስተዳዳሪ አቶ ታረቀኝ ጋቤራ በበኩላቸው እንዳሉት አስተዳደሩ በወረዳው ማንበብና መጻፍ የማይችሉ ጎልማሶችና የልዩ ፍላጎት ትምህርትን አጠናክሮ ለማከናወን እንዲቻል የገንዘብ ድጋፍ ማድረጉን ተናግረዋል። አስተዳደሩ በወረዳ ደረጃ ከተቋቋመው የአካል ጉዳተኞች ማህበር ጋር በመተባበር በለኩ አንደኛ ደረጃ ትምህርት ቤት ማዕከል ተከፍቶ በሀዋሳ መምህራን ኮሌጅ በልዩ ፍላጎት ትምህርት መምህራን አጭር ስልጠና በመስጠት እንዲያስተምሩ መደረጉን አስረድተዋል። በወረዳው የትምህርት ሽፋንን መቶ በመቶ በማድረስ ማንበብና መጻፍ የማይችሉ ጎልማሶች ሙሉ በሙሉ ማንበብና መጻፍ እንዲችሉ ለማድረግና የልዩ ፍላጎት ትምህርት የሚያስፈልጋቸውን አካል ጉዳተኞች ለይቶ በአካቶ የማስተማር ዘዴ ትምህርት ተጠቃሚ ለማድረግ የወረዳው አስተዳደር ከትምህርት ጽህፈት ቤቱ ጋር ተቀራርቦ እንደሚሰራ አቶ ታረቀኝ አስታውቀዋል።
http://www.ena.gov.et/Story.aspx?ID=8346&K=1

Thursday, May 30, 2013

አዋሳ ግንቦት 22/2005 የሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርስቲ የህብረተሰብ አገልግሎትን እንደ መደበኛ ፕሮግራሙ በማቀፍ የምርምር ውጤቶችን ተጠቃሚ ለማድረግ ስራውን አሰፋፍቶና አጠናክሮ መቀጠሉን የዩኒቨርስቲው ፕሬዝዳንት ገለጹ፡፡ ዩኒቨርስቲው ለስራ አጥ ወጣቶችና ሴቶች በዘመናዊ የዶሮ እርባታ ዙሪያ ያዘጋጀው ስልጠና ትናንት በሀዋሳ ከተማ ተጀምሯል፡፡ ስልጠናውን የከፈቱት የዩኒቨርሰቲው ፕሬዚደንት ዶክተር ዮሴፍ ማሞ እንደገለጹት የመማር ማስተማር ስራቸውን ከምርምር ጋር አቀናጅተው ያገኟቸውን አዳዲስና ችግር ፈቺ ውጤቶችን ለህብረተሰቡ ተደራሽ ለማድረግ ስድስት የቴክኖሎጂ መንደሮች ተቋቁመዋል፡፡ የህብረተሰብ አገልግሎትን እንደ መደበኛ ፕሮግራማቸው በማቀፍ በምርምር የተገኙ የግብርና፣ የጤናና ሌሎችን ውጤቶችን በተለይ ስራ አጥ ወጣቶችንና ሴቶችን ተጠቃሚ ለማድረግ የተለያዩ ስልጠናዎችንና የመስሪያ ግብአቶችን በማሟላት ድጋፍ እየሰጡ መሆናቸውን ተናግረዋል፡፡ በቅርቡ ብቻ በደን ልማትና ችግኝ እንዲሁም በእንጉዳይ አመራረትና አጠቃቀም ላይ ከሀዋሳ ከተማና ከሲዳማ ዞን ሁላ ወረዳ ለተወጣጡ በርካታ ወጣቶችና ሴቶችን ተጠቃሚ ማድረጋቸውን አመልክተው አሁንም ለ24 ወጣቶች በዘመናዊ የዶሮ እርባታ ዙሪያ ስልጠና አዘጋጅተው እራሳቸውን ችለው በተመሳሳይ ለሌሎችም የሚበቁበት የአቅም ግንባታ ድጋፍ አያደረጉ መሆናቸውን አስረድተዋል፡፡ ስራ ፈጣሪ ወጣቶችን እናበረታታለን ያሉት ዶክተር ዮሴፍ ዩኒቨርስቲው አጠቃላይ የትምህርት ተቋም እንደመሆኑ ሌሎችንም ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ጠቀሜታ ያላቸውን የምርምር ውጤቶችን ለህብረተሰቡ በማሸጋገር ተጠቃሚ ለማድረግ ስራቸውን በሁለገብነት አስፋፍተውና አጠናክረው መቀጠላቸውን ገልጸዋል፡፡ በዩኒቨርስቲው የምርምርና ልማት ዳይሬክተር ዶክተር ተስፋዬ አበበ በበኩላቸው ህብረተሰቡ ተጠቃሚ ማድረግ እያካሄዱት ካሉት ምርምሮች መካከል በአሁኑ ወቅት የ38 ፕሮጀክቶች ጥናት መጠናቀቁን ገልጸዋል፡፡ እነዚህም በግብርና፣ በተፈጥሮ ሀብትና ደን ልማት፣ በእንስሳት፣ በጤና ፣ በትምህርትና ሌሎችም ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ጠቀሜታ ያላቸው መሆናቸውን አስታውቀዋል፡፡ በምርምር የተገኙት የተሻሉና ችግር ፈቺ ውጤቶችን ለህብረተሰቡ ለማዳረስና ለማስፋፋት ባቋቋሟቸው የቴክኖሎጂ መንደሮች በኩል በማስተዋወቅ እየሰሩ ናቸው፡፡ ዘንድሮ ብቻ በደንና በእንጉዳይ ልማት ላይ ከሀዋሳ ከተማና ከሲዳማ ዞን ሁላ ወረዳ ለተውጣጡ ከ1 ሺህ በላይ ወጣቶችና ሴቶችን በማሰልጠንና የመስሪያ ቁሳቁስ አሟልተውላቸው ተጠቃሚ ማድረጋቸውን ተናግረዋል፡፡ በሀዋሳ ከተማ ለአራት ቀናት በተዘጋጀው ስልጠና ላይ ለተሳተፉት 24 ወጣቶችና ሴቶች ስለ ዶሮ ቤትና መገልገያ ቁሳቁሶች፣ የዶሮ መኖና አመጋገብ፣ የዶሮ በሽታና መከላከያ መንገዶች ዙሪያ በተግባር የተደገፈ ትምህርት በባለሙያዎች ይሰጣል፡፡ የሚሰሩበት የዶሮ ቤትና መኖ ቀደም ብሎ ከመመቻቸቱም በላይ ምርጥ የዶሮ ዝርያዎች እንደሚሰጣቸውን ዶክተር ተስፋዬ አስረድተዋል፡፡ ዩኒቨርስቲው በአሁኑ ወቅት በተለያዩ ዘርፎች ላይ ያተኮሩ 250 የምርምር ፕሮጀክቶች እያካሄደ እንደሚገኝም ገልጸዋል፡፡ የሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርሲቲ አምስት ካምፓሶችን በስሩ በማስተዳደር 31 ሺህ ተማሪዎችን በ64 የትምህርት ዘርፎች የመጀመሪያ ዲግሪና በ43 የድህረ ምረቃ ፕሮግራሞች እያሰለጠነ እንደሚገኝ የዩኒቨርስቲው ፕሬዚደንት ተናግረዋል፡፡
http://www.ena.gov.et/Story.aspx?ID=8314&K=1

Promising pulses in Ethiopia A similar healthy-eating effort is underway in Ethiopia, where about 52% of the country's rural population fails to meet minimum consumption requirements for calories. Researchers at the University of Saskatchewan and Hawassa University are studying how education can increase consumption of pulses, including chickpeas, broad beans, and lentils. They are focusing particularly on the consumption patterns of the most vulnerable: children under five, adolescent girls, and adult females. Studies found a lack of awareness among women of the nutritional value of pulses, and the need to incorporate this high-protein, high-iron crop in everyday meals. "The main staple of the Ethiopian diet is teff (a local cereal grain). People would rather eat that alone than add a little protein, like lentils. Part of our project is showing them the nutritional value of protein combinations. We are also trying to overcome the perception of pulse as 'poor man's food'," says investigator Carol Henry, with the University of Saskatchewan's College of Pharmacy and Nutrition.

Read more at: http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-05-cooking-traditional-crops-nutrition-boosts.html#jCp
To promote rational drug use in developing countries, it is important to assess drug use pattern using the World Health Organization (WHO) drug use indicators. The aim of this study was to assess the drug prescription patterns at the Medical Outpatient Pharmacy of Hawassa University Teaching and Referral Hospital, using some of the WHO core drug use indicators. 

Methods: A descriptive, quantitative, and cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the current prescribing practices at Hawassa University Teaching and Referral Hospital.

The sample was selected using systematic random sampling. 1290 patient encounters were reviewed retrospectively for a 2-year period from September 2007 to September 2009.

Data were collected from prescriptions and Prescription registration books retained in the pharmacy.Result: The average number of drugs prescribed per encounter or mean was 1.9 (SD 0.91) with a range between 1 and 4. The percentage of encounters in which an antibiotic or injection was prescribed was 58.1% (n = 749) and 38.1% (n = 491), respectively.

The Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name and from an essential drug list was 98.7% (n=2419) and 96.6% (n=2367), respectively. The most commonly prescribed forms of antibiotics were amoxicillin (16.4%), ampicillin (15%), gentamicin (14.9%) and chloramphenicol (11.6%).

On the other hand, the most commonly prescribed injections were ampicillin (21.4%), cloxacillin (13.4%), crystalline penicillin (12.4%), ceftriaxon (9.8%) gentamicin (9.8%), diclofenac (9.4%), chloramphenicol 41 (8.4%) and furosemide 25(5.1%). 

Conclusion: On the basis of the finding of this study, the prescribing practices for antibiotic and injection shows deviation from the standard recommended by WHO. These two commonly overused and costly forms of drug therapy need to be regulated closely.

Drug use evaluation should be done for some of the antibiotics to check whether they were appropriately prescribed or not. On the other hand, polypharmacy, generic prescribing and prescribing from EDL were not found to be a problem in this study.

Teaching hospitals have a special responsibility to society to promote rational prescribing by their staff and, through them, the future generations of doctors.

Author: Anteneh Assefa Desalegn
Credits/Source: BMC Health Services Research 2013, 13:170
http://7thspace.com/headlines/437270/assessment_of_drug_use_pattern_using_who_prescribing_indicators_at_hawassa_university_teaching_and_referral_hospital_south_ethiopia_a_cross_sectional_study.html

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

አዋሳ ግንቦት 21/2005 የግንቦት 20 የድል በዓል የሀገሪቱን ታሪክ ወደ አዲስ ምዕራፍ ያሸጋገረ የብሄሮች፣ ብሄረሰቦችና ህዝቦች አኩሪ የትግል ውጤት መሆኑን የደቡብ ክልል ርዕሰ መስተዳድር አቶ ሺፈራው ሽጉጤ ገለጹ፡፡ ፋና ብሮድ ካስት ኮርፖሬት ሻሸመኔ ኤፍ ኤም 103 ነጥብ 4 ከሲዳማ ዞን አስተዳደር ጋር በመተባበር የግንቦት 20ን በዓል ትናንት በሀዋሳ ከተማ በተለያዩ ፕሮግራሞች አክብሯል፤ በሲዳምኛ ቋንቋ የሬዲዮ ስርጭት መጀመሩንም አብስሯል፡፡ ርዕሰ መስተዳድር አቶ ሺፈራው ሽጉጤ በዚሁ ጊዜ እንደገለጹት የዘንድሮው የግንቦት 20 በዓል ትግሉን በመምራት ለድል ያበቁት ታላቁ መሪ የቀድሞው ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር መለስ ዜናዊን በሞት በተለዩን ማግስት የሚከበር በመሆኑ ልዩ ያደርገዋል፡፡ እሳቸውን ብናጣም የሀገራቸንን ታሪክ ወደ አዲስ ምዕራፍ በማሸጋገር ራዕያቸውንና የህዳሴ ጉዞችንን ለማሳካት ጠንካራ መሰረት በመጣል የብሄሮች፣ ብሄረሰቦችና ህዝቦች አኩሪ የትግል ውጤት እንዳለ አስረድተዋል፡፡ ሀገሪቱ ከጨለማው ዘመን በመውጣት በአሁኑ ወቅት የቡድንና የግለሰብ መብት ከመረጋገጡም በላይ በተለይ በትግል ወቅትና ከዚያም ወዲህ እንደሚዲያ የህዝብ ድምጽ በመሆን ሲያገለግል የቆየው የፋና ብሮድ ካስት ኮርፖሬት የግንቦት 20 ሌላው የድል ውጤት መሆኑን ገልጸዋል፡፡ ፋና የስርጭት አድማሱን በማስፋት ተደራሽ ከሆነባቸው የሀገሪቱ አካባቢዎች በተለይም በሲዳምኛ ቋንቋ አሁን የጀመረው ፕሮግራም ቀጥሎ 17 ሚሊዮን ለሆነው የደቡብ ክልል ህዝብ በተመሳሳይ እንዲሰራ የክልሉ መንግስት አስፈላጊውን ድጋፍና እገዛ እንሚያደርግ በማረጋገጥ እሰካሁን ላደረገው አስተዋጾኦ አመስግነዋል፡፡ የሲዳማ ዞን ዋና አስተዳደሪ አቶ ሚሊዮን ማቲዎስ የሲዳማ ህዝብ እንደሌላው ጭቁን ኢትዮጵያዊ ሁሉ የግንቦት 20 የድል ውጤት ተጠቃሚ መሆኑን ተናግረዋል፡፡ ፋና ብሮድካስት ኮርፖሬት በሲዳምኛ ቋንቋ የጀመረው ስርጭት በአካባቢው መልካም አስተደደርን ለማረጋገጥ፣ የብሄረሰቡን ቋንቋ፣ ባህልና ታሪክ ለማሳደግ ከፍተኛ አስተዋጾኦ እንዳለው በማመልከት ለስራው መቃናት የሚደርጉትን ደጋፍ አጠናክረው እንደሚቀጥሉም አቶ ሚለዮን አብራርተዋል፡፡ የፋና ብርድ ካሰት ኮርፖሬት ምክትል ዋና ስራ አስፈጻሚ አቶ ብሩክ ከበደ በበኩላቸው ፋና በሀገሪቱ ዴሞክራሲያዊና ልማታዊ አስተሳሰብ እንዲጎለብት በተለይም በጸረ ድህነት ትግል ውስጥ የኢትዮጵያ ህዝብ የተሻለ መደላደል እንዲኖረው ስርጭቱን አስፋፍቶ አሁን ዘጠኝ ቅርንጫፎች እንዳሉትና በቅርቡም በሚዛን አማን፣ በደብረ ብርሃንና በአሰላ ለመክፈት መዘጋጀቱን ገልጸዋል፡፡ በሻሸመኔ ኤፍ ኤም 103 ነጥብ 4 በኩል አሁን የጀመሩት የሲዳምኛ ቋንቋ የስርጭት ፕሮግረም ለማሳካት የክልሉና የዞኑ አስተዳድሮች ላደረጉላቸው ድጋፍ አመስግነዋል፡፡ የኢትዮጵያ ብሮድካስት ባለስልጣን ምክትል ዋና ዳይሬክተር አቶ ሉዑል ገብሩ በበኩላቸው ከግንቦት 20 የድል ውጤቶች መካከል በሀገሪቱ የተለያዩ አካባቢዎች የኤፍ ኤምና የማህብረሰብ ሬዲዮ ጣቢዎች እንዲከፈቱ ፍቃድ በመስጠትና በመከታተል እውን እንዲሆን ድጋፍ ሲያደርጉ መቆየታቸውን አመልከተው በቅርቡም በዲጂታል ሲስተም የቴሌቪዥን ፍቃድ የሚሰጥበት አሰራር እየተመቻቸ መሆኑን አብራርተዋል፡፡ የሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርስቲ ተወካይ ዶክተር ንጉሴ መሸሻ የሀገሪቱን ዴሞክራሲያዊ ስርዓት ለማጎልበት ሚዲያ ከፍተኛ አስተዋጾኦ እንዳለው አመልክተው ዩኒቨርስቲውም በተለይ የብሄረሰቦችን ኢኮኖሚያዊ ፣ ማህበራዊና ፖለቲካዊ እንቅስቃሲዎችን ለማጎልበት በቅርቡ በሲዳምኛ ቋንቋ የመጀመሪያ ድግሪ በመክፈት የጀመሩትን ፕሮግራም አስፋፍተው ለመቀጠል እየሰሩ መሆናቸውን ተናግረዋል፡፡ በሀዋሳ ከተማ የግንቦት 20 በዓል " የብሄሮች፣ ብሄረሰቦችና ህዝቦች ቋንቋ፣ ባህል፣ የእርስ በርስ መስተጋበርና መቻቻል" በሚል መሪ ቃል ሲከበር በፋና ሻሸመኔ ኤፍ ኤም 103 ነጥብ 4 የሲዳምኛ ቋንቋ የስርጭት ፕሮግራም በይፋ መከፈቱ ተበስሯል፡፡ በዓሉን አስመልክቶም የውይይት መድረክ የተካሄደ ሲሆን የስነ ግጥምና ባህላዊ የኪነት ትረኢት ቀርበዋል፡፡ ለሲዳምኛ ቋንቋ የሬዲዮ ፕሮግራም መከፈት አስተዋጾኦ ላደረጉ ድርጅቶችና ግለሰቦች የምስክር ወረቀትና ባህላዊ አልባሳት ተበርክቷል፡፡ በበዓሉ ላይ የፌዴራልና የክልሉ ከፍተኛ የስራ ሃላፊዎች፣ ባለሃብቶች፣ የህብረተሰብ ተወካዮች፣ የሀገር ሽማግሌችና ሌሎችም ጥሪ የተደረገላቸው እንግዶች ተሳትፈዋል፡፡
http://www.ena.gov.et/Story.aspx?ID=8272&K=1

Tuesday, May 28, 2013


የድንበር የለሹ የህክምና ቡድን ኣባል የሆነችው ኤቫ ዶሚኒገዘ በሲዳማ ዞን ኣሮሬሳ ወረዳ በፈስቱላ ስለምሰቃዩት ሴቶች እና እየሰጡ ስላሉት የህክምና ኣገልግሎት የተመለከተ የጻፉት ማስታወሻ

Día de la fístula: recuperar la alegría*

23 mayo 2013
Por Eva Domínguez (enfermera y comadrona de Médicos Sin Fronteras en Aroressa, Etiopía)
Como os decía, cada día en Sidama es intenso: pasan tantas cosas que de lo que ocurre en solo 24 horas os podría escribir un libro. Recuerdo por ejemplo un lunes que me fui a una referencia: mi paciente era una mujer que tenía una fístula. ¿Que qué es eso? Pues es un orificio anormal que se forma en la vagina y que comunica cavidades que no deberían estar en contacto (vejiga, recto…), y que suele ocurrir tras un parto complicado (largo y con fallecimiento del bebé), donde la cabeza del niño presiona esos tejidos llegando a provocar la destrucción.
Por esta fisura continuamente se escapan heces, pis… Podéis imaginar la vergüenza que sienten estas mujeres en su vida diaria. El rechazo del resto a veces origina su aislamiento y la repulsa de la comunidad. Yo ya sé diagnosticar una fistula por la clínica y por ese olor característico que las avergüenza y estigmatiza y que puedo sentir cerrando los ojos.
Afortunadamente aquí en Etiopía hay una fundación, Hamlin, que opera gratis este problema y que soluciona las vidas de estas mujeres. Y uno de mis trabajos era hacer los contactos necesarios para que mis pacientes recibieran las atenciones que merecen.
Aquel lunes, nuestro viaje, o aventura, comenzó por la mañana: el hospital donde trabaja Hamlin está a unas 4 horas de nuestro proyecto. Para allá que nos fuimos el conductor, Tilahun (ni papa de inglés pero ni falta que le hace), Seble, una de mis manos derechas, la paciente, su madre y yo.
Vista de Aroressa y sus caminos (© Faith Schwieker-Miyandazi).
Vista de Aroressa y sus caminos (© Faith Schwieker-Miyandazi).
No penséis que es fácil circular por carretera aquí: imaginar en plena montaña una carretera a menudo cortada por las lluvias, que provocan unos desprendimientos alucinantes. Tenemos que cruzar con atenta mirada del conductor y algún que otro pedrusco volando. Otro riesgo es que un coche se estropee en medio, y bloquee el camino: por aquí no hay grúas, así que si eso pasa, estamos apañados. Ambas cosas ocurrieron durante nuestro viaje…  En resumen y para vuestra tranquilidad, llegamos sanos y salvos 6 horas después.
El viaje es emocionante: imaginad a estas mujeres, que jamás han salido del pueblo, saludando a todo el mundo y observando el paisaje. En cuanto al hospital, es increíble: a tope de estudiantes de medicina por los pasillos y, en un lugar protegido, tranquilo e idílico, el ala de las fístulas. Tras dos horas de espera, una seria y sabia matrona nos atendió, y confirmó mi inexperto diagnóstico.
Durante ese tiempo, pude observar el lugar: es una sala blanca con camas de forja, sábanas limpias y enfermeras con uniformes impecables. Y lo mejor, las pacientes: todas vestidas con camisones de flores y unas mantas de lana, que yo deduje que eran hechas a mano y que para mi rebosaban cariño. Ellas transmitían paz, algunas estaban con sus bebés; se las veía felices y me sentí a gusto dejándola allí, con la promesa de que podía llamar y saber qué tal iba.
La nota amarga es que no permitían cuidadores, así que estaba el dilema de qué hacíamos con su madre… Dejarla allí para que volviera sola a casa (una señora de 50 años en moto por la montaña) no me tranquilizaba ni a mí ni al resto, así que nos la llevamos. Todo un viaje “tipical spanish” tipo Seat 124, con la abuela, el padre (conductor), la madre (yo) y Seble mi mano derecha (la niña), todo ello aderezado con la típica frase “¿papá, cuándo llegamos?”.
Tras dos días de excursión, de nuevo de vuelta, a mi querida Aroressa, a mis madres, a los bebés y a mi maternidad.
Alrededor de un mes después volví de paso a visitar a mi mujer: su cara triste y seria (sumisa y resignada) se había convertido en un rostro plácido, iluminado por la felicidad. Sus abrazos y besos me transmitían el agradecimiento, pero nosotros solo fuimos el vehículo: las gracias son para programas como este, en el que estas mujeres recuperan la sonrisa y las ganas de vivir.

* Hoy, 23 de mayo, es el Día internacional para la eliminación de la fístula obstétrica.
Si quieres leer otras entradas con historias del proyecto de MSF en Aroressa contadas por expatriados de la organización, pincha aquí.
አዲስአበባ፣ ግንቦት 20፣ 2005(ኤፍ ቢ ሲ) ሀገር አቀፍ የትምህርትምዝና እና ፈተናዎች ኤጀንሲ ደግሞ አጠቃላይ ዝግጅቴን አጠናቅቄለው ብሏል።
ኤጀንሲው ለፋና ብሮድ ካስቲንግ ኮርፖሬት እንዳለው ነገ በሚጀመረው ፈተና 785 ሺ 183 ተማሪዎች ፈተናውን ይወስዳሉ።
ከዚህ ውስጥም 349 ሺ የሚሆኑት  ሴቶች ናቸው።
በሀገር አቀፍ ደረጃ 1ሺ 347 የመፈተኛ ጣቢያዎች  ዝግጁ የሆኑ ሲሆን ከ29ሺ 800 በላይ የፈተና ጣቢያ ሀላፊዎች፣ ሱፐር ቫይዘሮች እና ፈታኞች መዘጋጀታቸው ተግልጿ።
በዘንድሮ ሀገር አቀፍ ፈተና በተለየ ሁኔታ ኩረጃን ለመከላከል ሲባል ተንቀሳቃሽ ስልኮችን  ወደ መፈተኛ ጣቢያ ይዞ መምጣት ፈጽሞ የተከለከለ መሆኑን ኤጀንሲው አሳስቧል።
ይህን በሚያደርጉ  ተማሪዎች ላይ ከፈተና እስከ መሰረዝ የሚደርስ እርምጃ እንደሚወሰድ ታውቋል።
በሌላ በኩል የከፍተኛ ትምህርት መግቢያ ፈተና ከግንቦተ 26 እስከ 29 ድረስ ይሰጣል።
ለዚህ ምዘናም ከ171ሺ 300 በላይ ተማሪዎች ፈተናውን ይወስዳሉ።
ባለ 17 ፎቅ ሕንፃ የእንስሳት ማቆያ ዙና ሪዞርት እያሰቡ ነው
እንኳን ንግድ ገበያ ወጥተው የማያውቁ የተሟላ ትዳር የነበራቸው የቤት እመቤት ነበሩ፡፡ ባለቤታቸው ወታደር ስለነበሩ፣ መኖሪያቸው ካምፕ ውስጥ ነበር፡፡ የትዳር ጓደኛቸውን ሞት ሲወስድባቸው የሚይዙትንና የሚሆኑትን አጡ፤ ሰማይ የተደፋባቸው፣ ምድር የከዳቸው ያህል ክው አሉ፡፡ ቤት ውስጥ ምንም ስላልነበር፣ በላይ በላይ የተወለዱ አምስት ሕፃናት ያለ አባት ማሳደግ እጅግ ከብዶ ታያቸው፡፡ “ምኔን አብልቼ ነው የማሳድጋቸው? እንደፈለጋቸው ይሁኑ፤” … ብለው ሜዳ ላይ በትነዋቸው አልጠፉም፡፡ ለልጆቻቸው ያሏቸው ብቸኛ ወላጅ እሳቸው ብቻ ስለሆኑ እንደምንም ለማሳደግ ወሰኑ፡፡ ባለቤታቸው በሕይወት እያሉ ለቤተሰቡ ቀለብ የተሸመተ 25 ኪሎ ዱቄት ነበር፡፡ “ይኼ ዱቄት ካለቀ ልጆቼን ምን ላቃምሳቸው ነው? አንድ ነገር ማድረግ አለብኝ” ብለው አሰቡ፡፡
ያቺን ዱቄት እየጋገሩ ሽሮ ወጥ ሠርተው ምግብ ቤት ለመክፈት ወሰኑ፡፡ መኖሪያቸው ካምፕ ውስጥ ስለነበር፣ እዚያ ያሰቡትን ነገር ማድረግ እንደማይችሉ ያውቃሉ። ስለዚህ ከዚያ ወጥተው ቤት ለመከራየት ወሰኑ፡፡ የሚያውቋቸው ሰዎችና ጐረቤቶቻቸው ውሳኔያቸውን አልደገፉትም። “እንዴት የሞቀ ቤትሽን ለቀሽ ትወጫለሽ? ልጆቹን ያለ መጠጊያ ልታስቀሪ ነው ወይ? ተይ! እነዚህን ሕፃናት ይዘሽ የባሰ ችግር ውስጥ እንዳትወድቂ …” በማለት መከሯቸው፣ ገሰጿቸው፡፡ እሳቸው ግን በልባቸው “ቤቴንና አቅሜን የማውቀው እኔ ነኝ፤ ይህንን ቤት እኔ አልሠራሁት፤ ደግሞም ቤቴ ውስጥ የሚሸጥም ሆነ የምግደረደርበት ንብረት የለም” በማለት ምክርና ግሳፄውን ችላ አሉት፡፡ ከዚያም ከካምፑ ወጥተው፣ የቤት ኪራይ ረከሰ ወዳለበት አካባቢ ሄደው የ8 ብር የቀበሌ ቤት ተከራዩ፡፡ “እሷንም ተጫርቼና 4 ብር ጨምሬ ነው የተከራየሁት” ብለዋል ወ/ሮ አማረች ዘለቀ፡፡
ወ/ሮ አማረች ዘለቀ በሆሳዕና ከተማ ነው የተወለዱት፡፡ ትምህርታቸውን እስከ 10ኛ ክፍል ተምረው ትዳር ሲመሠርቱ ወታደር ባላቸውን ተከትለው ሀዋሳ ከተማ መኖር ጀመሩ፡፡ የትዳር ጓደኛቸውን ሞት ቢነጥቃቸውም ወደ ትውልድ ቦታቸው አልተመለሱም፡፡ ኑሮአቸውን በሀዋሳ ከተማ አድርገው፣ ከብዙ ዓመታት ከፍተኛ ትግልና ጥረት በኋላ ሚሊዮን ብሮች በማንቀሳቀስ ዛሬ በከተማዋ የመጀመሪያ የሆነ ባለ 5 ኮከብ ሴንትራል ሀዋሳ ሆቴል ባለቤት ሆነዋል፡፡ “ሰው ጠንክሮ ከሠራ የድካሙን ዋጋ አያጣም” ይላሉ ወ/ሮ አማረች፡፡ እኚህ ጠንካራና ታታሪ ሴት ለሀዋሳ ከተማ፣ ለደቡብ ክልልና ለመላው ሀገራችን ጥሩ ተምሳሌት ሆነዋል ይላል፤ የሀዋሳ ከተማ አስተዳደር፡፡ እንዴት? የሀዋሳን ከተማ የውሃ ቧንቧ መስመር የዘረጋው ኢዘኢ የተባለ ድርጅት ካምፕ ወ/ሮ አማረች ከተከራዩት ቤት አጠገብ ነበር፡፡
ሻይ እና ቡና እያፈሉ፣ ሽሮ ወጥ እየሠሩ፣ እንጀራ እየጋገሩ፣ … ለሠራተኞቹ መሸጥ ጀመሩ፡፡ የሚሠሩት ምግብ፣ የሚጋግሩት አምባሻ ጥራት ያለውና የሚያጠግብ ስለነበር፣ የውሃ ቧንቧ ከሚዘረጉት ሠራተኞች በተጨማሪ ዝቀተኛ ገቢ የነበራቸው ሰዎችም ወሬውን እየሰሙ ገበያው ለመደላቸው፡፡ ይሄን ጊዜ የሚያስተናግዱበት ቤት ጠበባቸው። በረንዳው ላይ ቅርጮ (ሳጠራ) ሠሩ፡፡ ገበያው ከዕለት ወደ ዕለት እየደራ ሲሄድ ሳጠራውም ጠበበ፡፡ ይኼኔ ከበረንዳው ፊት ለፊት ቦታ ስለነበር፣ ጣራው የቆርቆሮ ክዳን ያለው፣ ጐንና ጐኑ ክፍት የሆነ አዳራሽ ቢጤ ሠርተው ማስተናገድ ቀጠሉ፡፡ በዚያን ጊዜ ወንበር ማቅረብ የማይታሰብ - ከቅንጦትም በላይ ቅንጦት የሆነ መስተንግዶ ነበር፡፡ ተመጋቢው እየበረከተ፣ በርጩማውም እየጠፋ ሄደ፡፡ ይኼኔ ዙሪያውን ለመቀመጫ የሚሆን መደብ ሠሩ፡፡ በዚህ ዓይነት ሲሠሩ ቆይተው አንድ ሌሊት አሳዛኝ አደጋ ተፈጠረ፡፡ ሌሊቱን የጣለው ከባድ ዶፍ ዝናብ የአዳራሹን ጣሪያ ደረመሰው፤ መደቡንም አፍርሶ ወሰደው፤ በርካታ መነገጃ ንብረታቸውንም አበላሸ። ወ/ሮ አማረች እንደልማዳቸው ማልደው ሲነሱ፣ የነበረው እንዳልነበረ ሆኖ አገኙት፡፡ “ከእንግዲህስ መቋቋሚያዬን ይዣለሁ፤ ልጆቼንም የሰው እጅ ሳያዩ ጥሩ አድርጌ አሳድጋለሁ …” ያሉበት ንብረት በአንድ ሌሊት ከባድ ዝናም ወድሞ ብዙ አከሰራቸው፡፡ ወገባቸውን ይዘው በጣም አዘኑና “የራሱ ጉዳይ ነው በጠፋ ነገር ላይ ማዘን አያስፈልግም፤ ውሃ መውቀጥ ነው” ብለው ከሰው ገንዘብ ተበድረው ወደ ሥራቸው ተመለሱ፡፡ እየሠሩም ዕዳቸውን ከፈሉ፡፡ ከዚያም በኋላ በተለያዩ ጊዜያት ኪሳራ ደርሶባቸዋል፡፡ ግን ተስፋ የቆረጡበት ጊዜ የለም፡፡ ከሰው እየተበደሩ፣ ሠርተው እየከፈሉ እዚህ መድረሳቸውን ይናገራሉ፡፡
ወ/ሮ አማረች እዚህ ደረጃ የደረሱት በሕዝቡ ከፍተኛ ድጋፍ መሆኑን ደጋግመው ነው የሚናገሩት። ከባድ ዝናብ የሠሩትን አዳራሽ ጥርምስ ሲያደርግባቸውና የሠሩትን መደብ ባፈረሰባቸው ጊዜ ተመጋቢውን እፍ እፍ ብለው በርጩማም ሆነ ሌላ ነገር ላይ ሲያስቀምጧቸው ቅሬታ እንዳልነበራቸው ይናገራሉ፡፡ ለገቢያቸው መድራት ሌላው ምክንያት የደንበኞችን ባህርይ ማጥናት ነው፡፡ “ይህ ተመጋቢ ምን ያስፈልገዋል? እያልኩ ማጥናት ጀመርኩ፡፡ ተመጋቢ ምን ያስደስተዋል? አዘውትሮ የሚፈልገው ምን ዓይነት ምግብ ነው? እገሌ’ኮ የሚወደው እንዲህ ነው፤ … እያልኩ በመሥራቴ የደንበኞቼ ቁጥር በየጊዜው ይጨምር ነበር፡፡ አሁንም አንዳንድ ሰዎች እየመጡ “ድሮ ልጆች ሳለን እዚህ ቦታ ሳጠራ ውስጥ ተመግበን ነበር” ይሉኛል፡፡ አንድ ጊዜ የተመገበ ሰው ዳግመኛ የሚመጣው እኔ ጥሩ ምግብ ስለምሠራ ነው፡፡ ሰውን አስደስቼ፣ ራሴም ቋሚ ጥሪት ማፍራቴ በጣም ያስደስተኛል፡፡ ወደፊትም ዕድሜ እስከሰጠኝ ድረስ መሥራቴን እቀጥላለሁ” ብለዋል ወ/ሮ አማረች፡፡ “ውጤት ለማግኘት ጠንክሮ መሥራትና ተስፋ ያለመቁረጥ ያስፈልጋል፡፡ እኔ በብዙ ችግር ውስጥ ነው ያለፍኩት፡፡
ማንኛውም ሰው ችግር ሲያጋጥመው ተስፋ መቁረጥ የለበትም፡፡ አንድ ችግር ሲያጋጥም ለመውጣት መጣር ነው እንጂ ዝም ብሎ መቀመጥ የለበትም፡፡ እኔ የመጀመሪያ ጥረቴ ልጆቼን ማሳደግ ነበር፡፡ መሥሪያዬን ሳላሟላ የቤት ዕቃ እንኳ አልገዛም ነበር፡፡ ዕቃውም፣ ንብረቱም፣ ቤቱም አብሮ ሲያድግ ነው ደስ የሚለው” ይላሉ፡፡ ሳጠራ ቤት ውስጥ ሲሠሩ ትንሹ ምግብ 0.60 ሳንቲም፣ ትልቁ 1.25፤ የሌሎችም ዋጋ በሳንቲም ቤት እንደነበር ወ/ሮ አማረች ያስታውሳሉ፡፡ አሁንም የሆቴላቸው ምግብ በጥራት በመሥራትና ብዙ በማቅረብ ታዋቂና ተመራጭ ቢሆንም፣ በዋጋ ረገድ ግን ከሌሎች ጋር ሲነፃፀር ዝቅተኛ መሆኑን ተናግረዋል፡፡ የባህልና ቱሪዝም ሚኒስትር ዴኤታ ወ/ሮ ታደለች ዳለች፤ ባለፈዉ ቅዳሜ ሴንትራል ሀዋሳ ሆቴል ሲመረቅ ባደረጉት ንግግር፣ በ1970 ዓ.ም ሆቴሉ የቅርጮ (ሳጠራ) በነበረበት ወቅት እዚያ መመገባቸውን ተናግረዋል፡፡ የደቡብ ክልል ፕሬዚዳንት አቶ ሽፈራው ሽጉጤ ደግሞ በሆቴሉ ባይገለገሉም ወ/ሮ አማረች የሚጋግሩት አምባሻ ትልቅና የሚያጠግብ ስለነበር፣ የውሃ ባንቧ የሚዘረጉት ሠራተኞች “ወደ ሴንትራል እንሂድ” ይሉ እንደ ነበር መስማታቸውንና “ሴንትራል” የሚለው ስምም ከዚያ እንደመጣ ገልጸዋል፡፡ “ልጆች እያለን ከት/ቤት ስንመጣ ምሳ ሳንበላ ሁላችንም መስተንግዶ ላይ እንሰማራ ነበር፡፡
ግማሾቻችን ዕቃ እናጥባለን፣ ምግብ እናቀርባለን፣ የተቀረነው ደግሞ ቤት የሚጋገረው እንጀራ ትንሽ ስለሆነ ሲያልቅ ሮጠን እንጀራ ገዝተን እናመጣ ነበር” ያለው የቤተሰቡ ሦስተኛ ልጅና የሴንትራል ሀዋሳ ሆቴል ሥራ አስኪያጅ አቶ ፍትህ ወ/ሰንበት ነው፡፡ ዝናብ ያፈረሰውን አዳራሽ እንዴት መልሰው እንደሠሩና የሴንትራል ሆቴልን ዕድገት እንዲህ ሲል አስረድቷል፡፡ ሚስማር የሚመታ አናጢ ይኖራል እንጂ ቤት ውስጥ ያለነው ሁላችንም ነበር የሠራነው። እዚያ እየሠራን የምሳ ሰዓት ሲደርስ ተሯሩጠን እናስተናግዳለን፡፡ የምሳ ሰዓት ሲያበቃ ደግሞ ወደ ሥራው ተመልሰን እየሠራን የአዳራሹ ሥራ አለቀ። ከዚያ በኋላ ደግሞ ከዚያኛው አዳራሽ ፊትለፊት ቦታ ስለነበረ፣ ጣሪያ ያለው፣ ጀርባው ብሎኬትና ፊት ለፊቱ ክፍት የሆነ ሌላ አዳራሽ ሠራን፡፡ በሁለቱ አዳራሾች እየሠራን ብዙ ጊዜ ከቆየን በኋላ፣ ያለንበትን የቀበሌ ቤት በሊዝ ገዝተን፣ የመጀመሪያውን ሴንትራል ሆቴል ግንባታ ያለ ምንም የባንክ ብድር በድፍረት በነበረን ብር ቁፋሮ ጀመርን፡፡ መጀመሪያ የተሠራው የሕንፃው አዳራሽ ነበር። አንደኛው ፎቅ ሲሞላ ከስር ትልልቅ ሠርጐች ይካሄዱበት ነበር፡፡
ሥራው ለአንድም ቀን ሳይቆም ከላይ አርማታ እየተሞላ ከስር ሠርግ እየተደገሰ፣ በምሳ ገቢው ሲሚንቶ እየተገዛ፣ የእራቱ ደግሞ ለሠራተኛ እየተከፈለ የመጀመሪያው ሕንፃ ግንባታ ከሦስት ዓመት በፊት ሙሉ በሙሉ አለቀ” ብሏል አቶ ፍትህ፡፡ የመጀመሪያው ሕንፃ ግንባታ እንዳለቀ፣ ከጐናቸው ያለውን ቦታ ከግለሰብ ገዙ፡፡ ከዚያ ቀጥሎ ደግሞ የቀበሌ ቤት ስለነበር በሊዝ ገዝተው፣ ያላቸው የቦታ ስፋት 2400 ካሬ ሜትር ደረሰ፡፡ ከዚያም የዛሬ ሳምንት የተመረቀው ባለ 5 ኮከብ ሴንትራል ሀዋሳ ሆቴል ግንባታ ያለ ምንም የባንክ ብድር መጀመሩን አቶ ፍትህ ተናግሯል፡፡ የዚህም የሥረኛው ወለል ተሠርቶ ሲያልቅ፣ ዙሪያውን ጨርቅ አልብሰው ሠርግ ያስተናግዱበት ነበር፡፡ የስሩን ጨምሮ ባለ 10 ፎቅ ሕንፃ አዳራሹ፣ ሠርግ ሳያስተናግድ የቀረበት ጊዜ እንደሌለ ሥራ አስኪያጁ ተናግሯል፡፡ የሕንፃውን ግንባታ በራሳቸው ገንዘብ ካጠናቀቁ በኋላ ለውስጥ ዕቃዎች ማሟያ ገንዘብ አጠራቸው። በዚህ ጊዜ መንግሥት ዘርፉን ለማበረታታት የፈቀደውን ከቀረጥ ነፃ መብት ለመጠቀም ወደ ዳሽን ባንክ አመሩ፡፡ “ከቀረጥ ነፃ መብት በመጠቀም በአንድ ጊዜ ብር ይዘን ውጭ አገር መሄድ ነበረብን፡፡ ያን ጊዜ ወደ ባንክ ሄድን፡፡ እኔ፣ ወንድሜና የግንባታ ተቆጣጣሪው ወደ ቻይና ሄደን ለሆቴላችን ጥራት ያለው ዕቃ ስንመርጥ ወር ቆየን፡፡ በዚያን ጊዜ ውስጥ የቻይናን ምግቦች መልመድ አልቻልንም።
ጧት ዳቦ በማርማላት ወይም በለስላሳ በልተን ዕቃዎቹን ወደምንመርጥበት ገጠር እንሄዳለን። እዚያ ደግሞ ምንም ምግብ የለም፡፡ ፆም ውለን ከምሽቱ 4 እና 5 ሰዓት እንመለሳለን፡፡ በዚህ ዓይነት የጥራት ደረጃቸው ከፍተኛ የሆኑትን ዕቃዎች አዝዘን ተመለስን፡፡ ሁለተኛ ዙርም ሄደን ያዘዝናቸውን 43 ኮንቴይነሮች ዕቃ አመጣን፡፡” ብሏል፡፡ የዛሬ ሳምንት ሆቴሉ ተመርቆ እንዳበቃ ከሰዓት በኋላ፣ በተለያዩ አዳራሾች ሁለት ሠርጐች ሲስተናገዱ አይቻለሁ፡፡ አቶ ፍትህ በአንድ ቀን 14 ሠርጐች ያስተናገዱበት ጊዜ እንደነበር ተናግሯል። ሁለቱ መንትያ ሕንፃዎች በአጠቃላይ ትንሹ 40 ትልቁ ደግሞ 1000 ሰዎች ማስተናገድ የሚችሉ ሰባት አዳራሾች አሏቸው፡፡ አዳራሾቹ በአካባቢው ስም ነው የተሰየሙት፡፡ የመጀመሪያውና ትልቁ አዳራሽ ልደት ቁጥር 1 እና ቁጥር 2 ይባላሉ፡፡ ሌላኛው የሲዳማ የፍቼ በዓል በሚከበርበት ስፍራ በጉዱማሌ ተሰይሟል፡፡ ከሀዋሳ ከተማ ግርጌ ባለው ታቦር ተራራም የተሰየመ አዳራሽ አለ፡፡ ሌላኛው ዘመናዊ አዳራሽ ደግሞ በቅርቡ በሞት በተለዩት ጠቅላይ ሚኒስትር መለስ ዜናዊ ስም ተሰይሟል፡፡ “አዳራሾቹ እረፍት የላቸውም፡፡ ከሰኞ እስከ ዓርብ የተለያዩ ስብሰባዎች ያስተናግዳሉ፡፡ እሁድና ቅዳሜ ደግሞ ሠርግ” ብሏል አቶ ፍትህ፡፡ በከተማይቱ በርዝመቱ ቀዳሚ የሆነው ሴንትራል ሀዋሳ ሆቴል፤ ከ202 ሚሊዮን ብር በላይ የፈጀ ሲሆን በሰባት ፎቆች 74 የመኝታ ክፍሎች አሉት፡፡
ከዚህ ውስጥ 23ቱ ሁለት አልጋ ያላቸው ክፍሎች ሲሆኑ በአጠቃላይ 97 እንግዶች ማስተናገድ ይችላሉ፡፡ ፕሬዚዴንሽል ስዊት፣ ስታንዳርድ፣ ደሉክስና ክላሲክ ይባላሉ፡፡ ሆቴሉ በሁለተኛ ፎቁ የመዋኛ ገንዳ በመያዝ ከከተማዋ ቀዳሚው መሆኑን አቶ ፍትህ ገልጿል። በሕንፃው የመጨረሻ ፎቅ (ቴራስ) በስተደቡብ ታቦር ተራራን፣ በስተደቡብ ምዕራብ፣ በምዕራብና በሰሜን ምዕራብ የሐዋሳን ሐይቅ፣ በስተምስራቅ ደግሞ በፕላን የተሠራችውን የሀዋሳ ከተማን እየቃኙ ይዝናናሉ፡፡ በተለያዩ መጫወቻዎች የተደራጀ የሕፃናት መዝናኛም ይዟል፡፡ “እንግዶች ልጆቻቸዉን ይዘው ወደተለያዩ ሆቴሎች ሲሄዱ የልጆቻቸዉን ደህንነት ለመጠበቅ ዘና ብለው አይዝናኑም፡፡ እኛ ጋ ግን እንደ “ዴይኬር” የሠለጠኑ ባለሙያዎች ልጆቹን ተቀብለው ያዝናናሉ፤ ይጠብቃሉ፡፡
ስለዚህ ወላጆችም ልጆችም ያለ ስጋት በምቾት ይስተናገዳሉ” ብሏል፡፡ የሴቶችና የወንዶች ፀጉር ቤት፣ ሁለቱም ፆታዎች በተለያየ ክፍል የሚገለገሉበት ስፓና ሳውና ባዝ፣ የተደራጀ ጂምናዚየምና መታሻ (ማሳጅ)፣ የተለያየ መጠን ያላቸው ባርና ሬስቶራንቶች፣ ለሆቴሉ ሠራተኞችና ለእንግዶች የመጀመሪያ ዕርዳታ የሚሰጥ ክሊኒክ አለው፡፡ መናኸሪያ አካባቢ 18 የመኝታ ክፍሎች ያሉት ፔንሲዮንም አላቸው፡፡ በዚህ ቦታ ላይ ባለ 17 ፎቅ ሁለገብ ሕንፃ ለመገንባት የአፈር ምርመራና ፕላን ማሻሻያ እያሠሩ መሆኑን ሥራ አስኪያጁ ተናግሯል። ወ/ሮ አማረች ሐይቁ አካባቢ ለአንደኛው ልጃቸው ዘመናዊ ጋራዥ የከፈቱለት ሲሆን በጋራዡና በሐይቁ መካከል ደግሞ ለማንም ያልተሰጠ ቦታ አለ፡፡ ያንን ቦታ ማዘጋጃ ቤቱ እንዲሰጣቸው ጠይቀዋል፡፡ የሐይቁ መዳረሻ የሆነው ይህ ቦታ ከተፈቀደላቸው የተለያዩ የዱር እንስሳት የያዘ “ዙ” እና “ሪዞርት” ለመሥራት አቅደዋል፡፡ ከዚህም በተጨማሪ ለሆቴልና ለግል አገልግሎት የሚሰጡ መኪኖች፣ ለሠርግ የሚከራዩ ማርቸዲሶች አላቸው፡፡ አስጐብኚ ድርጅትም ለመክፈት ዝግጅታቸውን እንዳጠናቀቁ አቶ ፍትህ ገልጿል፡፡
እንግዶቻቸውን ከቦሌ አውሮፕላን ጣቢያ ተቀብለው በመንገዳቸው ያሉትን የመስህብ ስፍራዎችና መዝናኛዎች (ለምሳሌ ላንጋኖ፣ …) እያስጐበኙ ሀዋሳ ለማድረስ አቅደዋል፡፡ የሆቴሉ የስር ወለል (ግራውንድ ፍሎር) ሁለት አገልግሎት ይሰጣል፣ ናይት ክለብና ለቪ አይፒ መኪኖች ማቆሚያ፡፡ ዘመናዊው ናይት ክለብ ማታ እስከ 4 ሰዓት ባህላዊ ዝግጅቶች፣ ከዚያ በኋላ ደግሞ ዘመናዊ ጭፈራ ያስተናግዳል፡፡ ወ/ሮ አማረች በችግር ያሳደጓቸውን ልጆች ለወግ ለማዕረግ አብቅተው የልጅ ልጅ አይተዋል፡፡ አሜሪካ የሚኖረው አቶ ሙሉቀን ትዳር መስርቶ ሁለት ልጆች ወልዷል፡፡ አቶ ፀጋዬም አራት ልጆች አፍርቷል፡፡ አቶ ፍትህና አቶ ታገል ደግሞ በቅርቡ እንደሚሞሸሩ ወ/ሮ አማረች ዘለቀ ተናግረዋል፡፡ ስለ ሆቴሉ ዋጋም አቶ ፍትህ ሲናገር “ዋጋችንን የከተማው ነዋሪ የሚመሰክረው ነው፡፡ ዝቅተኛውን የኅብረተሰብ ኪስ ያገናዘበ ነው፡፡ ውድ ዋጋ ለማስከፈል ያሉን ፋሲሊቲዎች ከበቂ በላይ ናቸው። ነገር ግን እናታችን ሁሉም ተደስቶ፣ የሁሉም ቤት ሆኖና ተስተናግዶ የምናገኘው ነው የሚሻለው የሚል መመሪያ ስላላት፣ ዋጋችን የኅብረተሰቡን ኪስ የሚጐዳ አይደለም፡፡ ከዋጋችን ዝቅተኛነት የተነሳ ከአዲስ አበባ መጥተው ሠርግ የሚያስደግሱ አሉ፡፡ በሀዋሳና በዙሪያዋ የሚገኙ ሰዎች እዚህ ነው የሚደግሱት፡፡
ጠዋት ተነግሮን በአጭር ጊዜ ውስጥ ለሁለት ሺህ ሰው ምሳ ማዘጋጀት እንችላለን፡፡ እኛ እንደ እናት ሆነን ነው የምንደግሰው፡፡ ሌላው ጋ የሚበላው ነገር ሲያልቅ “ማለቅ ራሱ ዓይነት ነው” ይባላል፡፡ እኛ ጋ ግን እንደዚህ ዓይነት ነገር የለም። የመጨረሻው ሰው ክትፎም ሆነ ቁርጥ ተስተናግዶ ነው የሚሄደው፡፡ በምግብ ጥራት፣ በብዛትና በዋጋ ተወዳዳሪ የለንም፡፡ “ትልቁ አልጋችን ፕሬዚዴንሻል ሱዊት ነው። ሦስት መኝታ ክፍሎች፣ ጃኩዚና ስቲም ባዝ፣ የራሱ ኪችንና አነስተኛ መሰብሰቢያ፣ አውቶማቲክ የሽንት ቤት መቀመጫ፣ … ኖሮት አራት ሺህ ብር ነው የምናስከፍለው፡፡ ሌላ ቦታ ተመሳሳይ ክፍል ያላቸውና ከእኛም ወረድ የሚሉት ከ8 እስከ 9ሺ ብር ይከራያሉ፡፡ ሱት የሚባለውና ሳሎን ያለው ክፍል፣ ሌሎች 120 ዶላር ነው የሚያስከፍሉት፡፡ እኛ ጋ ግን 1500 ብር ነው፡፡ ዴሉክስ፣ ክላሲክና ቱዊንስ የሚባሉት፣ እኛ ዘንድ 800 ብር ነው የሚከራዩት፡፡ ሌላው ጋ ግን በዶላር ሂሳብ ሆነው 1200 ብር ገደማ ናቸው፡፡ ማንም ሰው ደፍሮ ሊተኛበት የሚችለው ስታንዳርድ የሚባለውን ክፍል 400 ብር ነው የምናከራየው፡፡
እዚህ ባለ 5 ኮከብ አገልግሎት እያገኙ በ400 ብር ማደር ይቻላል ማለት ነው፡፡ ስለዚህ ዋጋችን አካባቢ ተኮርና የደንበኞቻችንን ኪስ የማይጐዳ ስለሆነ ውድ አይደለም ማለት ነው” ሲል አስረድቷል፡፡ ሁሉም ክፍሎች (መፀዳጃ ክፍል ጭምር) እንግዳው ችግር ቢያጋጥመው ጥሪ የሚያደርግበት ስልክ አላቸው። ሕንፃው ሽቦ አልባ መገናኛ (ዋየርለስ) ስላለው፣ ማንኛውም ሰው ኢንተርኔት በነፃ መጠቀም ይችላል። ክፍሎቹ በሙሉ ሲጋራ አይጨስባቸውም። ማጨስ ለሚፈልግ ሰው ግን ኮሪደር ላይ ማጨሻ ስፍራ ተዘጋጅቶለታል፡፡ በሁሉም ፎቆች ኮሪደሮች የደህንነት መቆጣጠሪያ ካሜራና እሳት ማጥፊያ ተገጥሟል፡፡ ክፍሎቹ ደግሞ ቲቪ፣ ስልክ፣ ካዝና፣ ፍሪጅ፣ እንደ ክፍሎቹ ደረጃ ስቲምና ሳውና ባዝ፣ መደበኛ ሻወር፣ ፀጉር ማድረቂያና፣ ሳሎን፣ መዝናኛ ሶፋና ጠረጴዛ፣ የጽሕፈት ጠረጴዛና ወንበር፣ ሻይና ቡና ማፊያ፣ በረንዳ፣ … አላቸው፡፡ እንዲሁም ሆቴሉ ሁለት አሳንሰር (ሊፍት) አሉት፡፡ ሆቴሉ ለ252 ዜጐች የሥራ ዕድል የፈጠረ ሲሆን የሠራተኞቹን ቁጥር 300 ለማድረስ ዕቅድ አለው፡፡

At an international hunger summit in London next month, experts will seek to tackle the long-term impact of childhood malnutrition and its consequences for struggling nations

At an international hunger summit in London next month, experts will seek to tackle the long-term impact of childhood malnutrition and its consequences for struggling nations

People queue at an emergency feeding tent during Ethiopia's famine
People queue at an emergency feeding tent during Ethiopia's famine in 2003 Photo: REX
In the first-year classroom of Shemena Godo Primary School, in Boricha, Ethiopia, three dozen children study the alphabet. On a black chalkboard, teacher Chome Muse highlights the letter B and writes the combination with each vowel. Ba, be, bi, bo, bu.
The pupils, crowded two or three to a desk, listen to the sounds. I am watching one boy in particular, Hagirso, who sits at the back of the room. He copies the letters in his tattered notebook and proudly shows me his first attempts at writing, a triumphant milestone in early childhood development.
Hagirso, though, is no child. He is 15 years old. I first met him 10 years ago during the Ethiopian famine of 2003. He was in an emergency feeding tent, on the verge of starvation and weighed just 27lb when his father carried him to the clinic. The doctors and aid workers feared he wouldn’t live.
Miraculously, Hagirso survived, but the damage of severe malnutrition had been done.
When I next saw him, five years later on the family’s small farm in the southern highlands, Hagirso had gained weight but not much height. He was then 10 years old and just over 3ft tall. He wasn’t in school.
“He isn’t able,” his father, Tesfaye Ketema, told me. “I can see from his growth he isn’t so good. He is stunted.”

Tesfaye Ketema with his 15-year-old son Hagirso, who suffered malnutrition in the Ethiopian famine of 2003.
Stunted. It is a harsh, ugly word. Often spoken in clinical, analytic terms – “standard deviations” of height and weight, “suboptimal” brain development – it is the manifestation of malnutrition: diminished physical and mental capacity. It is a word that has been heard more frequently in recent years, as the world confronts the shame and the peril of hunger in the 21st century. It is a label for some 165 million children under five years of age in the world. It has become a target; at his hunger summit at the close of the London Olympics, the Prime Minister David Cameron outlined a goal of reducing the number of stunted children worldwide by 25 million by the opening of the Rio Olympics in 2016. And it is a word that will be front and centre in the minds of those who gather at the Nutrition for Growth: Beating Hunger through Business and Science summit in London on June 8.
But just what does it mean to be stunted? It means as a teenager, struggling to keep up with six-year-old classmates, being one of the smallest in school, getting sick more often than your friends because of a weakened immune system. It means, in all likelihood, falling short of your potential, a life sentence of underachieving. This is the life of Hagirso.
''He is average despite his age,” says his teacher. He places Hagirso’s performance in the middle of the class of 56, where most of the children are younger than 10. Hagirso today stands just over 4ft tall and most days goes to school barefoot and on an empty stomach.
He and his fellow first-year primary pupils are just learning simple maths, so he is unable to comprehend the equations – volume of a circular cylinder, area of a trapezoid – written on wooden signs hanging from the trees in the schoolyard. The lessons drawn on the outside walls of the classrooms – the periodic table of elements, the human digestive system, a map of Africa – are just so much graffiti to him. Words of encouragement, leaping from other signs, are lost on him: “Try try until you get the result”; “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”; “A man without a plan is nothing”. Hagirso, just learning phonics, is unable to put those ambitious aphorisms into action.
“I’m always thinking that those early years really impacted his life,” his father says. “He hasn’t grown. I know at times he has trouble understanding.”
Stunting often begins in the very early months of a child’s life, particularly in the first 1,000 or so days – including the period of pregnancy – and ending with the child’s second birthday. Malnutrition then can prevent critical brain development and slow physical growth.
Hagirso’s parents are poor smallholder farmers, tending less than an acre of land. The family has rarely known a year without a hunger season, the months between harvests when the food cupboards are bare. Tesfaye acknowledges that since his son’s birth, Hagirso’s diet has lacked important micronutrients, such as vitamin A, iron and zinc. Then, when drought and famine hit in 2003, Hagirso rapidly declined. His father began selling the family’s few possessions to buy food. First he sold his ox, which pulled the plough. Then he sold the family cow, which provided milk. Then he sold the goats. With nothing left, Tesfaye carried his starving son to the emergency feeding tents.
Now, a decade later, when Hagirso should be preparing for a productive adult life, he is just starting school. He is often sick; his first attempt to begin school last year was cut short by a bout of malaria. He helps out a bit on the farm, mainly pulling weeds. His father hopes that, with an education, Hagirso will be able to “get out of this community”, get a job in a city somewhere, send some money home to help care for his family. But that’s still many years away for a teenager only beginning to read and write.
Hagirso is hardly alone in being behind. He’s not even the oldest in his class; one classmate is 16, another is 17. In Ethiopia, about 44 per cent of children under five are stunted, according to the country’s own estimation. That, according to the United Nations Children’s Fund (Unicef), adds up to more than five million children. In sub‑Saharan Africa, about 40 per cent of children are stunted; in South Asia, 39 per cent.
The toll of stunting is profound and far-reaching, spreading like concentric rings from the individual. Not only does poorer educational performance reduce the individual’s future earnings potential in adulthood (perhaps by as much of as 25 per cent, according to some studies), it also cheats the economic growth of the family, the larger community and the nation as a whole. World Bank reports and data gathered in individual countries have estimated that widespread stunting can cut several percentage points off a nation’s GDP. This impoverishment in turn saps the potential of global trade.
And then there is the opportunity cost: who knows what a child might have contributed to society if not for stunting?
It was Hagirso who pestered his father to be allowed go to the primary school just a 10‑minute walk from their house. With more than 2,000 children enrolled in the school of 17 classrooms, the learning is done in shifts. One week Hagirso leaves home at 8am; the next week at noon.
“I like school,” he tells me. “I’m doing better.”
Hagirso’s determination to attend school reflects a national effort to overcome the burden of stunting. Since the 2003 famine, the government, private sector and humanitarian agencies working in the country have prioritised nutrition; the health posts proliferating throughout the countryside now specialise in mother and infant health, with an emphasis on sharing information on the 1,000 Days. The nationwide percentage of children under five who are stunted has fallen to 44 per cent from 57 per cent in 2000.
It’s progress, “but we have to accelerate,” says Tweldebrhan Hailu Abrha, the country director of Alive and Thrive, a programme which seeks to reduce chronic malnutrition.
“Otherwise, what dreams our country has of developing may not be realised. If you don’t have a fertile brain to receive training and teaching, you can’t develop economically.”
The same is true for Hagirso. His dream is to be a teacher, “a teacher who makes a lot of money,” he tells me in class while his own teacher laughs.
At least he’s made a start.
'Last Hunger Season’ by Roger Thurow (Perseus Books) is available to pre-order from Telegraph Books at £10.99 + £1.35 p&p. Call 0844 871 1514 or visit books.telegraph.co.uk
Roger Thurow’s recent reporting from Ethiopia was supported by the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting

Monday, May 27, 2013

Ogaden Community UK Solidarity with Sidama People “Looqe Massacre”
Today we are here to mark the anniversary of Looqe Massacre in which many brothers and sisters have been perished in Hawasa, the capital city of Sidama. This is a very sad story, today I’m sure that we all have a lot in common, because in Ogaden every day a bloody murderer’s kill innocent people, which are peaceful people like our Sidama brothers and sisters.

Every day exactly identical and similar evil actions, done by the brutal Addis-Ababa regime, happen to Orormo People, Afar People, Gambella People and all other victims under this regime. We are all suffering from Looqe massacre; we are all victims of the genocide in Ogaden, Oromiya and many other regions in the country.

Ladies and gentlemen I would like to thank the Sidama Community for hosting this event. It is really momentous, significant and very important that we hold events like this for the commemoration of our fallen brothers and sisters. Hence, our communities from Ogaden, Sidama, Oromiya and Afar as well as all other victims under Abyssinian oppression can contribute and share their stories of genocide in a hope that we will be able to prevent and mitigate such this horrible, barbaric and nasty action.
Remembering some of our stories, such as Looqe massacre, has been tragic but at the same time, it will help us bring our communities together, in order to fight back against the evil oppression and merciless human treatments done by the Abyssinian regime. The Sidama people and the Ogaden people share many similarities and today we are marking the Looqe massacre as same as the catastrophic event that took place during the Ogaden massacre day.
The Ogaden Community remembers Looqe massacre as it is similar to Wardheer massacre, when in 1994, the ruthless, merciless and brutal Woyane soldiers massacred more than 80 innocent civilians, including women and children in DOLLO region, East Ogaden. Remember those victims were peaceful protesters, like the people of Looqe. The ogaden people remember the Qabridahar Massacre in 2005, the gallaalshe massacre, the Malqaqa Massacre, and many more. Every month Ethiopian governments commit mass killings in ogaden.

Dear sisters and brothers on behalf of the Ogaden community I would like to send our deepest heartfelt to the families and people of Sidama those are suffering from Looqe massacre. It was unacceptable and evil action, committed by Ethiopian government.

We should all be united and bring to Justice those who committed the genocide. We must be united and face the challenges waiting in front of us. As we all know, Genocide is a crime against humanity and that is why we all need to unite. Remember, not just ourselves but also we need to bring the world at our side.

May justice prevail
Ogaden Community UK
http://www.ogaden.com/hornnews/ethiopia/1630-ogaden-community-uk-solidarity-with-sidama-people-looqe-massacre.html
Abstract
Objectives: This study is aimed at examining the contribution of selected
pregnancy and postnatal health care services to Infant Mortality (IM) in
Southern Ethiopia.
Method: Data were collected from 10 rural villages of the Sidama Zone,
Southern Ethiopia, using a structured interview schedule. The 1,094
eligible women respondents were selected using a combination of simple
random and multi-stage sampling techniques. The main outcome variable
of the study (IM) was measured by reported infant deaths during the twelve
months preceding the survey, and was estimated at 9.6% or 96 infant
deaths per 1,000 births. Pregnancy and health care variables were used as
the main explanatory variables along with other household and individual
characteristics.
Results: The predicted probabilities, using three models of logistic
regression analysis, have shown that four pregnancy and postnatal health
care variables (antenatal care, immunisation, exclusive breast feeding and
wantedness of the pregnancy) and women’s age are found to be significant
predictors of IM in the study areas.
Conclusions: Finally, based on the key findings, some recommendations
are given: promoting of institutional delivery seeking behaviour through
behavioural change communications, training more Traditional Birth
Attendants (TBAs), and maximising the use of the Health Extension
Workers (HEWs) stationed at village level to make a house-to-house visit
so as to encourage pregnant women to seek pregnancy and delivery care
services.
Further reading: http://casopis-zsfju.zsf.jcu.cz/journal-of-nursing-social-studies-public-health-and-rehabilitation/administrace/clankyfile/20120628110350302926.pdf
BT Biratu, DP Lindstrom

Abstract




Background: The utilization of formal prenatal care services in Ethiopia could generally be described as low by international standards. While this is attributed to the lack of access to formal maternal health-care service, which is an
important barrier to prenatal care, other important socio-cultural barriers to service utilization also exist.
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the relative influence of the attitudes and background characteristics of husbands and wives on prenatal care utilization, and in particular to identify the role of a husband's approval on prenatal care.
Methods: Data were collected from 1,750 women in a community-based survey of maternal health conducted in Yirgalem town and its surrounding rural areas, as well as in Jimma Town in 1997. Multivariate regression models were used to identify: (1) the relationship between the determinants of whether a woman wanted a pregnancy and whether a husband approves of prenatal care, and (2) the influence of a husband's approval on care utilization net of pregnancy wantedness and other factors.

Results: It was found out that a husband's approval has a greater effect on prenatal care utilization than whether a wife wanted the pregnancy or a wife's level of education. It was also found that the impact of a husband's approval on prenatal care is greatest among women under the age of 20.
Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of targeting men when designing interventions that
are intended to raise the awareness and use of prenatal health-care services.

The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development Vol. 20 (2) 2006: 84-92
Full Text: 
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SUMMARY
Background: the health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution have yet to become a central
focus of research, development aid and policy-making.
Objective: To investigate the effect of household fuel use on acute respiratory infection in
younger children at Shebedino Wereda.
Study method: The study design was cross-sectional, which employed an exposure assessment
approach, collecting detailed primary data on several household-level exposure indicators
(fuel type, stove type, kitchen type, housing type, ventilation, etc.) through the administration
of a questionnaire in 405 households. Data were collected during January to February 2006.
Result: The response rate for the sampled households was 100%. ARI prevalence of the study
area (21%) was found to be lower as compared to the national figure in 2000 (24%). The study
approach appears to demonstrate a relatively consistent association between child handling
practice while cooking and childhood ARI.
Conclusion: The existing environmental and socioeconomic factor in the study area has a
considerable potential to contribute for environmental threats to the health of children. An
obvious implication is that educating the public about the adverse effects of cooking smoke on
child health and on good child handling practice through community participation is essential.
Read more:http://www.ajhsjournal.or.ke/admin/current/zz8qpAstJBF.pdf
The Sidama Nation acrossthe Globe Mark 11th Year Anniversary of
Looqqe Massacre
Sidama Community United Kingdom, May 25, 2013
London
On a very bright morning in Sidama land, on May 24, 2002, between 10:30 and
11:00am local time; the Sidama people of all walks of life staged on a peaceful
and non-violent Demonstration after fully exhausting the constitutional
requirements that is needed to undertake such an activity. Carrying the leaves of
trees and Ethiopian flags, the demonstrators peacefully started to march towards
their capital city, Hawassa which islocated at the distance of about 3 km from
where they have been planning to hold the said peaceful demonstration when
they were encountered with deliberately targeted barbaric acts after they have
nearly travelled about a kilometre from the point they were gathering.
The objectives of the demonstration was in protest of the government’s decision
to remove the administrative right of their capital (Hawassa)- from Sidama to the
federal government in addition to the issues related with regionalself
administration quest, the Sidama nation is constitutionally guaranteed, yet denied.
Whilst the Sidamas were peacefully demonstrating, suddenly, they were met with
several armoured vehicles with machine guns and others hundreds of army
personnel all of whom live shot into the upcoming crowds without warninginstantly killing over hundred Sidama civilians and wounding about 250-300.
With Sidama civilian demonstrators about three Sidama police officers were also
summarily executed by the army for demanding them and police officers to stop
the killing of Sidama’s peaceful and unarmed civilians. For being humane and
genuine the said Sidama police officers also paid ultimate sacrifices for the causes
of justices with others Sidama civilians. The dead bodies of hundreds of Sidama
civilians were left on the street for the entire day whereas others seriously
wounded unfortunately died in the middle of highly grown up corn plantation;
most of whose dead bodies eventually devoured by hyenas. Others several
seriously wounded civilians were also left to loss their blood and die in an
agonising pain as health professionals weren’t allowed to help them until after 6
hours, after the shootings. After 6 hours of the shootings, the dead bodies of the
Sidama people were dragged and some of them thrown to the pickup cars and an
ISUZU lorry to be eventually dumped in Hawassa health centre. The families of
the dead Sidama civilians weren’t allowed to collect the bodies of their beloved
ones up until 3rd or 4
th days.
Strict curfew wasimposed throughout Sidama region for weeks and the Sidama
was fully militarised from corner to corner. Those culprits who have ordered,
stage-managed and monitored the massacre of the Sidama civilians are widely
circulating in Sidamaland to date until now, and most of them are promoted to
higher authority statuses.
As we commemorate the 11th anniversary of such tragic acts of the regime
sponsored terrorism against law abiding Sidama civilians with our brothers and sisters [the sons and daughters of others subjugated nations of Ethiopia], our
thought goes to the families and relatives of Sidama victims of Loqqe massacre of
May 24, 2002. We also salute their courage, determination and indefatigable
decisions whilst they took to the streets of Sidamaland demanding their
fundamental rights defying the mightiness of the regime’s live ammunitions to
pay ultimate sacrifices. We also believe that this is the kind of crime taking places
in Oromia, Ogadenia, Gambella, Shakicho Kaficho and others regions of
subjugated nations with varying degrees. We salute the strengths of all civilians
whose ultimate contributionsin the end will make the dreams of their respective
nation’sreality.
We’re commemorating Sidama victims of atrocity of May 24, 2002, in
conjunction with psychological thought of those all Ethiopians who have lost
their preciouslives for simple reasons of seeking justice, liberty, human dignity
and respect for fundamental rights; the essential elements all are denied by the
successive Ethiopian regimes including the incumbent one.
As we all gathered here in London on May 25, 2013, in a free land where the rule
of law is part and parcel of the whole society, our hearts and minds travel
thousands of miles, dissecting clouds and ocean alike to share the sufferings of
those who are unfortunately left back in Ethiopia, underthe rule of jungle where
democracy and democratic values remain meaningless.
Therefore,
The Sidama nation wholeheartedly reaffirms its oaths on its determination until it
assertsthe rights of Sidama nation for which cause its fallen Sidama heroes paid
ultimate sacrifices!
The Sidamas in Sidamaland and in Diaspora remember this Day, as the day of
Sidama Martyrs and salute them all for their precious sacrifices of life. We all
Sidamas, young and old, female and male alike never forget the ultimate
sacrifices those heroes paid on behalf of our nation.
We the Sidamas wholeheartedly thank the representatives of Oromia, Ogadenia,
Shakacho Kaficho and others subjugated nations’ brothers and sisters for showing
us their usual solidarity by taking part in whatever we do on behalf of our
systematically subjugated and deliberately brutalised nation.
Finally, we demand the support of the international community and strongly
suggest to hold the Ethiopian current regime into account for its inhuman
treatment of civilians and bring those who’re responsible for Loqqee massacre of
Sidama civilians and others similar massacres and genocides committed by this
very regime all over the country. We also demand the current Ethiopian regime
to stop the acts of barbarism towards civilians, intelligentsia, journalists,
opposition members and the wider societies at large.
May the Souls of Sidama Victims of atrocity and others Ethiopian nation’s
peoples who have paid similar sacrifices Rest in Peace!!
Sidama Community UK, May 25, 2013, London
http://sidamaliberation-front.org/Looqqe%2011th%20Anniversary.pdf

Friday, May 24, 2013

- By: Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis
Wolassa Kumo reveals details about the Loqqe massacre that, carried out by the Abyssinian tyrant Meles Zenawi, consists in sufficient reason for us to raise the issue of the criminally ignored by the materialistic and apathetic Western World Sidama Genocide.

We end this brief introduction by formulating an alarming warning for the devious international community our decayed times: when you focus on one, and forget numerous other genocides, more genocides will happen to you.

Supporting the Sidama Pledge for Independence today is not a matter of mere Humanism; it becomes an issue of instinctive self-defense against Evil.

Sidama: An Overview of History, Culture and Economy (part 2)

By Wolassa Kumo

VI. Sidama Today

The Sidama people had made tremendous and historic contribution to the weakening and the final down fall of the military regime. However, the TPLF, which overthrew the military regime in 1991, ignored the historic contribution of other peoples in the struggle against the socialist regime and monopolised political power in the country. The current regime continued to deny human and democratic rights of the Sidama people by denying the people its basic right to regional self determination.

The current regime follows an outdated system of indirect rule used by the British Empire in the colonies before the 1960s. The regime assigns handpicked loyalists who often lack education and experience to serve as the representatives of the Sidama people. The purpose of these people is to use them as informers to the central TPLF leadership instead of as leaders of their people. Whenever the informers fail to inform properly or try to voice little concern about the people they are supposed to represent, they are removed immediately and either sent to jails in Awassa or Addis Ababa or are left jobless. The Sidama administrative sub region (also called zone) witnessed 11 administrative changes in 13 years, one informer (leader) serving less than 1.1 years. One can imagine how economic and social progress as well as the provision of justice can be attained with such highly volatile political environment. The irony is that the volatility is deliberately maintained by the regime that claims to be the champion of the oppressed peoples.

This derives from the strategic plan of the regime to suppress the Sidama struggle for regional self determination which the regime successfully reduced to the struggle for regional status. The regional questions are crucial in the Ethiopian politico- administrative structure. Sidama as a nation of an estimated 5 million people have undisputed democratic right to be an independent region in Ethiopia. The Sidama people resent being bullied by the current regime with 45 smaller tribes. The continued suppression of this fundamental democratic right by using naïve loyalists who end up in jail turn by turn, only increases the resentment and the determination of this heroic people to fight for their total independence.

Following the genocide of the peaceful antigovernment Sidama demonstrators in Looqe, Awassa, by the regime’s defence and police forces, on May 24, 2002, in which over 70 Sidamas were brutally murdered and hundreds of others were wounded, the Sidama nation has witnessed unprecedented violations and abuse of the rights of its citizens. Mass imprisonment, torture, harassment and intimidation became the order of the day. The abuse of human rights continued until today because the people have intensified their struggle for recognition of regional status.

Awassa town was established in 1964 by removing the Sidama dwellers near lake Awassa. The Sidama people have been living in the present land of Awassa for over 1000 years. However, the current regime in Ethiopia tries to rewrite history by denying the right of the Sidama people to ownership of the city. The current regime made several attempts to remove the Sidama capital from Awassa and send it to remote districts in the hinterland of Sidama. In a similar manner, the regime tried to remove the Oromos from Finfine (Addis Ababa) but when the people of Addis Ababa rejected the current ruling party in May 2005 elections, the Oromos were re-granted their right of living and working in Finfine as their capital. Several such examples of double standards and policy inconsistencies of the current regime can be listed but time and space are not always on our side.

After the massacre the Sidama people living in the town were considered as second class citizens. Most of the people were systematically removed from the town and sent to districts in the name of restructuring of the civil services. Hundreds of ethnic Sidama civil servants were removed from their jobs following the massacre. Many civil servants have fled the country. In Sidama history mass emigration took place only twice. The first was during the war of 1977-1983 between the Sidama freedom fighters and the military regime. And the second was during and after the massive human rights abuses following the May 24, 2002 Looqe massacre. For a comprehensive and pioneering study of the Diaspora identify and forced flight of the Sidama people refer to Seyoum Hamesso (2007). Moreover, several hundred ethnic Sidama members of the police force have been removed for their alleged support of the cause of the Sidama people. On the other hand, the naïve loyalists were promoted to various lucrative positions.

People were also removed from Sidama land in the name of resettlement to reduce population pressure. The genuine solution to the over population of a given area is to establish an alternative employment schemes by investing on alternative manufacturing, mining and services sectors. Deportation of the people from their home lands to an area which is less developed than their own home land can not be justified by any reason. Forced resettlement and villagization programmes carried out by the socialist regime were utter failures. There is no guarantee that an equally unpopular regime can bring a miraculous success by forcing people to move from their lands and settling them in remote areas of the country.

VII. The Sidama Economy

The Sidama economy is based primarily on subsistence agriculture characterized by archaic production techniques. However, a substantial proportion of the Sidama land produces coffee which is the major cash crop in the area. Coffee has been the major sources of income for the rural households in the coffee producing regions of the Sidama land. However, the recent plunge in international coffee price coupled with inimical government policy on Sidama drew most of these households back into the subsistence production and absolute poverty. In fact, Sidama is one of the major coffee producing regions in Ethiopia. In particular, Sidama supplies 45-50% of washed coffee to the central market. Coffee is the single major export earner for the country. Export earnings from coffee ranges from 55-67% although the country’s share in the world market is less than 3%.

The Sidama people have never faced hunger and famine in the history of their society because they had always produced enough for themselves. The society has been characterised by what one may call the long run equilibrium. Even the 1984 great famine that hit all other parts of the country did not affect the Sidama land. However, the subsistence nature of agricultural production which is dependent on archaic technology and vagaries of nature coupled with massive growth of rural population and inimical government policy, made the Sidama land prone to frequent hunger and famine that characterizes the country. Thus, it is not surprising to see that, today, about 1/4 of the total population in Sidama is directly or indirectly dependent on food aid from the international community.

A semi narcotic crop called Chat has recently become another major cash crop in the Sidama land. A crop whose leaves are chewed as stimulants has become another major export earner for the country and a substantial amount of this crop comes from the Sidama region. Given the dramatic fall in the world coffee price and subsequent loss of revenue and deterioration in living standards of the rural households in Sidama, it is feared that farmers may root the coffee plants out and replace them with Chat permanently.

Other major crops produced in Sidama include Enset (also called false banana or Weese in Sidaamuffo), wheat, Oat, maize, barley, sorghum, millets, sugar cane, potatoes, and other cereal crops and vegetables. Enset is the main staple food in Sidama. Apart from being the main source of food, parts of the Enset tree can be used as inputs in other economic activities like construction of houses, production of containers like sacks, and for handling food items during and after preparation of food. Thus, the pattern of Enset and coffee production and consumption over the years has substantially shaped the nature of the Sidama culture and hence the name the Enset culture.

The role of livestock was highly significant in medieval and early 20th century Sidama society. However, recently the importance of live stock has been dwindling because of two factors. First, a rapid increase in population reduced the size of grazing land for large stocks, and second a severe ‘Tse-Tse’ fly disease in low land areas has virtually wiped out most of the livestock population during the last quarter of the 20th century. However, livestock is still the most important source of livelihood for people living in the peripheral areas of the Sidama land.

Although agriculture is a key to the development of the country, successive regimes failed to successfully transform the traditional agriculture in Ethiopia. The transformation of traditional agriculture as an engine of growth and development was emphasised by one of great economists, Theodore Schultz (1964), who states that all resources of the traditional type are efficiently allocated, and hence the rate of return to increased investment with the existing states of the art is too low to induce further saving and investment. According to Schultz, therefore, the development of traditional agriculture depends on breaking the established equilibrium. Based on a theory of the price of income streams, he suggests that breaking such established equilibrium requires the introduction of modern inputs in the form of human and material capital. The author is certain that when Schultz talks about the modern inputs (human and material) he does not mean dumping fertilizers to the poor who have no clue as to how to use them.

Worse still, in Ethiopia the modern input is not only incomplete but also is a means of enriching government companies at the expense of the poor. Where the poor manage to produce surplus in one bumper season, there will be no market to sell the products. Therefore, during the next season the farmers are bankrupt and unable to sustain the previous level of production. This perpetuates an endless cycle of poverty in Sidama land.

Forestry and fishery are underdeveloped in the Sidama area. Fishing activities are limited to the most prominent lakes in Sidama: lake Awassa and lake Abaya. Although Sidama has several perennial rivers these rivers have never been exploited. Although commercial forestry is underdeveloped, Sidama is well known for its traditional agro forestry system which saved the land from erosion and desertification for centuries. Every household in Sidama practices planting crops with trees. However, this tendency has also brought a negative impact in recent times. Farmers began planting Eucalyptus trees near other crops. Because the later plant has a poisonous effect, it destroys other crops planted near it. Most farmers are aware of the problem. However, the economic benefits of the eucalyptus tree outweigh the cost of losing small crops near it for individual farmers. But this trend is dangerous for the overall environmental sustainability of the Sidama land.

Sidama is characterized by a very low level of industrial development. There are very few manufacturing factories in Sidama land. A very few factories available in the area are all located in Awassa town and its environs. The government owned textile and ceramic factories are the only notable manufacturing activities in Sidama. A chip wood factory built in recent years and a meat processing factory in Malga Wondo are the only major private manufacturing activities in the entire Sidama land. Small scale manufacturing activities are highly underdeveloped because of the inimical government policies. No attempt has been made by the government to develop industrial sector to create jobs for the massive redundant labour force in the rural area.

The agriculture development led industrialization strategy of the current regime is a policy document for donor consumption. We have not seen the strategy in practice for 15 years now. The conventional agriculture development led industrialization involves the building of agro processing industries that process the local agricultural inputs that can be sold in domestic or export markets thereby adding value to the primary products.

This plays a crucial role in reducing rural poverty. The poverty reducing impact of such projects is twofold: first, the market for the agricultural products is readily available at the door step of producers. Second, processed products fetch better price both in domestic and foreign markets than primary products. The writer has never witnessed any agriculture development led industrialization activity in Sidama or other parts of South Ethiopia during the past 15 years. The writer has witnessed successful agriculture development led industrialization in the Philippines where there are over 70 medium and large scale sugar processing factories located through out the country which is the size of the Oromia region in Ethiopia. Varieties of other agro processing factories are found in this country and the country follows an exemplary agriculture development led industrialization policy.
Mining is virtually non existent. Although Sidama is said to have a good potential of mineral resources particularly in the Great East African Rift Valley and the eastern highlands of the Sidama land, nothing has been done to exploit these resources. The absolute lack of industrial development in the area, which is characterized by massive overpopulation in rural areas, means that the Sidama people will continue to suffer from poverty, illiteracy and starvation for years to come.

The development of both economic and social services is very low. Economic infrastructure is severely underdeveloped. The Supply of electricity, water and telephone services is the monopoly of the government and hence its supply is severely curtailed. Many of the capital towns of the main districts do not have electric supply connected to the national grid. All whether roads are not more than 400 km. Asphalted roads are non existent except for the 90 km stretch of the Cairo - Addis Ababa- Gaborone road that passes through the Sidama land. The private financial services are beginning to operate in the area but are still insignificant. Trade and transport services are severely underdeveloped and limited mainly to very few urban areas. Trade activities in rural Sidama heavily depend on purchase and sale of coffee. The coffee slum has severely affected these activities.

There is a great tourism potential in Sidama land. The rift valley lakes like Awassa and Abaya are already some major tourist attractions in Sidama land. However, the access to Lake Abaya through Sidama land has been opened only five years ago and is not well developed and not open for potential tourists. The agro forestry and the mountain ranges of eastern highlands are other potential tourist attractions in Sidama. However, they have not been exploited so far.

Unemployment and underemployment is rampant. An estimated 1.5 million people in rural Sidama are either unemployed or under employed. Employment in modern sector is very much limited. The total estimated number of the labour forces employed in modern sector in Sidama is less than 1%. Out of the estimated total population of 5 million, an estimated 2.5 million people are in the active labour force of which 1.5 are estimated to be underemployed or unemployed in Sidama. If properly utilised huge supply of labour can make positive contribution to economic development. As early as the middle of 20th century economist such as William Arthur Lewis, the first black economist to win Nobel Prize in economics, have emphasised the potential of economic development with unlimited supply of rural labour. Lewis’s (1954) paper on ‘Economic Development with Unlimited Supplies of Labour’, elaborates how the dual sector model can be successfully used in promotion economic development in poor countries with unlimited supply of labour.

The deliberate dismantling of the donor assisted development initiatives in Sidama by the current regime has made matters worse. Last week the author watched a feature film on international media that showed the Sidama people from Awassa and Borrichcha districts queuing for food hand outs while the woman carried emaciated children on their backs. I was told by my colleagues to watch people who are starving to death in Ethiopia, but when I watched, the people were from my own village. Their story inspired me to write this article.

VIII. Conclusion

The Sidama people had enjoyed an independent and egalitarian socio-economic life before the 1893. They had a unique indigenous political system led by the Mote (King) assisted by Ga’ro. The Mote serves as the political and administrative leader of the nation and rules in consultation with the council of people’s representatives called the Songo. The cultural affairs of the society were the responsibility of the Woma who is responsible for carrying out religious sacrifices (Kakalo) and other cultural duties. The most prominent Sidama culture is the Seera (the grand social constitution) linked to the Sidama moral code of halale (the ultimate truth), “the true way of life”.

Varieties of sub Seera’s or constitutions were developed based on the grand Seera such as Minu Seera (building societies), Jirte (association during mourning and other social events) and economic cooperations such as Dee (labour contribution for farming), Kotta ( producers’ cooperatives) and Shuffo (revolving commodity credit). Sidama had such unique and beautiful indigenous and egalitarian, social, political and economic arrangements that it could offer to the international community.

However, this beautiful indigenous socio-cultural and socio-political set up was disrupted with the imperial conquest of Minelik. The consequent feudal system not only deprived the Sidama people their right to the ownership of their basic capital land, but also converted the people into a virtual slavery.

The abolition of the feudal system did not bring fundamental changes to the lives of the Sidama people. Although serfdom and direct slavery were abolished, misguided economic polices based on the socialist ideology of the military regime brought further suffering. Forced collectivisation and villagization programmes led to massive fall in agricultural production. The resistance to such unpopular policies led to the war between the military regime and the Sidama people between 1977-1983 and various other uprisings in Sidama which were all brutally crushed by the military regime. In this war over 30,000 Sidamas were killed. This seriously undermined the Sidama struggle for freedom and democracy but did not kill the spirit of the nation.

At present even though the fundamental problem of the Sidama society is perpetuation of underdevelopment with all its manifestations: hunger, poverty and illiteracy, the lack of regional representation in the country is considered to be a major step backward in the history of the society. Economic development and poverty reduction can not be thought of when the people do not enjoy their fundamental rights. Continued resistance for regional recognition have not only led to high volatility in Sidama political administration, but also to a massive abuse of human rights ranging from massacre to imprisonment and torture. However, a society that survived over a century of suppression will not at all despair.

References

  • Hammer, JH. 2002. The Religious conversion process among the Sidama of North East Africa. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 72 (4): 598-627


  • Hameso, S. 2007. Diaspora identity formation and forced flight of Sidamas. The University of East London, UK.


  • Schultz, TW. 1964. Transforming traditional agriculture. Yale University Press.


  • Lewis, WA. 1954. Economic development with unlimited supplies of labour. The Manchester School of Economic and Social Studies. May 1954.
  • About The Author: Dr. Muhammad Shamsaddin Megalommatis - is Orientalist, Assyriologist, Egyptologist, Iranologist, Islamologist, Historian and Political Scientist. Dr. Megalommatis, 49, is the author of 12 books, dozens of scholarly articles, hundreds of encyclopedia entries, and thousands of articles. He speaks, reads and writes more than 15, modern and ancient, languages
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