Nomonanoto Show

Thursday, October 11, 2012

የሲዳማ መብት ተከራካሪ ካላ ዱካሌ ላሚሶ

ከሲዳማ የፊቼ በኣልን ተከትሎ በክልሉ መንግስት መሪነት ከታሰሩት በርካታ የሲዳማ ተወላጆች መካከል የሆኑት እና ከቅርብ ቀናት በፊት የእስር ቤት የተፈቱት ካላ ዱካሌ ሰሞኑን ወደ ፍርድቤት እንድቀርቡ የቀጠሮ ወረቀት ተሰጥቷቸዋል።

ስማቸው እንድገለጽ ያልፈለጉ የውስጥ ኣዋቂ ምንጮች ለወራንቻ ኢንፎርሜሽን ኔትዎርክ እንደተናሩት ካለ ዱካሌ ላሚሶ የዩኒቨሪሲቲ ተማሪዎችን በመንግስት ላይ በማነሳሳት፤ ጸረ ኢህኣዴግ/ ደኢህዴን ጽሁፎችን በመጻፍ እና በመሳሰሉት ክስ እንደተመረሰረተባቸዋል።
እንደእነዚሁ የውስጥ ኣዋቂ ምንጮች ገለጻ ከሆነ፤ የደቡብ ክልል ፕሬዚዴንት ካላ ሽፈራው ሽጉጤ የሲዳማን የክልል ጥያቄ ለመጨፍለቅ በምያደርጉት ጥረት በርካታ የሲዳማ ምሁራንን በማሰር ብሎም በማስፈራራት እያሸማቀቁ የቆዩ ሲሆን፤ ሰሞኑን ከፌደራል እስከ ወረዳ ያሉት የሲዳማ ኣመራሮችን በማሰባሰብ ደኢህዴን ለኣመታት ያልም የነበረውን የሃዋሳን ከተማ ኣስተዳደር ከሲዳማ ተወላጆች እጅ የመንጠቅ ህልማቸውን ኣሳክቷል።

የሲዳማ ኣመራሮች ያሳለፉትን ውሳኔ ተከትሎ ሰሞኑን በሃዋሳ ከተማ ኣስተዳደር ውስጥ ኣስራ ሁለት የሹመት መደቦች ሲዳማ ባልሆኑ ግለሰቦች እንዲያዙ ተደርገዋል።

የሲዳማን የክልል ጥያቄ የምደግፉት ሆነ የሃዋሳን ከተማ ከሲዳማ እጅ መውጣቱን የምቃወሙትን የሲዳማ ተወላጆች ላይ የሚደርሰው የቃላት ዛቻ ተባብሶ የቀጠለ ሲሆን፤ ካላ ዱካሌ ፍርድቤት እንድቀርቡ ልደረጉ ያሉት ውስጥ ውስጡን በመቀጣጠል ላይ ያለውን ህዝባዊ ተቃውሞ ለመቀልበስ ታስቦ መሆኑን እነዚሁ ውስጥ ኣዋቂ ምንጮች ኣብራርተዋል።




የሀዋሣ ከተማ ማዘጋጃ ቤት የማስፈፀም አቅሙን ከፍ በማድረግ የአገልግሎት አሰጣጡ ይበልጥ ተደራሽ እንዲሆን እየሰራ መሆኑን አስታወቀ፡፡
በ2ዐዐ4 በጀት አመት በከተማ አስተዳደሩ የተሻለ አፈፃፀም ካስመዘገቡ ሴክተር መስሪያ ቤቶች ውስጥ አንዱ የሆነው የሀዋሣ ከተማ ማዘጋጃ ቤት የአገልግሎት አሰጣጡን ተደራሽ ለማድረግና የተሻሻሉ አሰራሮች ተግባራዊ እንዲሆኑ እስከታችኛው የመስሪያ ቤቱ መዋቅር ድረስ ሂስና ግለሂስ አድርጓል፡፡
በግምገማው ወቅት እንደተጠቆመው ማዘጋጃ ቤት በባህሪው አገልግሎት ሰጪ ተቋም አንደመሆኑ መጠን በሰራተኛው የአመለካከት ችግርና የክህሎት ክፍተት ምክንያት ሙሉ የሆነ አገልግሎት ለመስጠት አልተቻለም፡፡
እንደ አቶ ዮናስ ዮሴፍ የሀዋሣ ከተማ ከንቲባ ገለፃ ከከተማ ልማት ስራዎቻችን መካከል ተጠቃሹ የከተማ ነዋሪውን የአገልግሎት ፍላጎቶች ተደራሽ ማድረግ ሲሆን ለዚህም የሲቪል ሰርቫንቱን የአፈፃፀም አቅምና አመለካከቱ ትልቅ ግምት የሚሰጠው ነው ብለዋል፡፡

አቶ ብሩ ወልዴ የሀዋሣ ከተማ ማዘጋጃ ቤት አገልግሎቶች ዋና ሥራ አስኪያጅ በበኩላቸው ምንም እንኳን ባለፈው በጀት አመት ማዘጋጃ ቤቱ በተለያዩ የሀገርና ክልል አቀፍ መድረኮች ተሸላሚ ያደረጉትን ስራዎች እንደሰራ ቢታወቅም ይህ ማለት ግን የአገልግሎት አሰጣጡ ሙሉ ነው ማለት አይደለም፡፡
ስለሆነም ያለብንን የአሰራር ክፍተቶች እስከታችኛው መዋቅር ድረስ በመገምገም የተሸለ አፈፃፀም እንዲኖረን ይጠበቅብናል ብለዋል፡፡
ማዘጋጃ ቤቱ ከዚህ ጐን ለጎን በ2ዐዐ4 በጀት አመት በአገልግሎት አሰጣጣቸው፣ በመረጃ አያያዛቸውና ከዋናው ማዘጋጃ ቤት ጋር ባላቸው የአሰራር ግልፀኝነት በከተማዋ ከሚገኙ 8 ክፍለ ከተሞች የአዲስ ከተማ ክፍለ ከተማን አንደኛ የመናኸሪያ ክፍለ ከተማን ሁለተኛ እንዲሁም የታቦር ክፍለ ከተማን ሶስተኛ አድርጐ ሸልሟል፡፡የከተማው የመንግስት ኮሚኒኬሽን ዘግቧል፡፡
http://www.smm.gov.et/_Text/30MesTextN105.html

ኤጀንሲው ድጋፉን ያደረገው ከሴቶች ህፃናትና ወጣቶች ጉዳይ ሚኒስትርና ከተለያዩ ድርጅቶች ጋር በመተባበር መሆኑም ታውቋል፡፡
በኤጀንሲው የሴቶች ጉዳይ ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር ወይዘሮ ራሄል ዘውዴ እንዳሉት የመንግስት ሠራተኞች ማህበራዊ ዋስትና ኤጀንሲ ህፃናት የነገ ሀገር ተረካቢ መሆናቸውን በውል በመረዳት ከልዩ ልዩ አካላት ስፖርንሰር በማፈላለግ ልዩ ልዩ ድጋፎችን በማድረግ ላይ ይገኛል፡፡

ድጋፍ የተደረገላቸው 169 በሞግዚት የሚተዳደሩ ህፃናት መሆናቸውንም ጠቁመዋል፡፡
ለህፃናቱ የዚህን አይነት ድጋፍ ማድረግ ትምህርታቸውን በሚገባ እንዲከታተሉ አስተዋፅኦው የጐላ መሆኑም ተናግረዋል ሲል የዘገባው በኃይሉ ጌታቸው ነው፡፡
http://www.smm.gov.et/_Text/30MesTextN805.html

ጽህፈት ቤቱ አሥር ዋና ዋና አለም አቀፍ የሰብአዊ መብት ስምምነት ያካተተ  4ዐዐጥራዝ ለክለሉ ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት አስረክቧል፡፡
ኢትዮጵያ ፊርማ ያፀደቀቻቸውን ዓለም አቀፍ የሰብአዊ መብት ስምምነት በሀገራዊ ቋንቋዎች መተርጐም ለኢትዮጵያ ሰብአዊ መብት ኮሚሽን በማቋቋሚያ አዋጅ ከተሰጡት ስልጠንና ተግባራት መካከል አንዱ ነው፡፡
ሰነዶቹ ለትምህርት ቤቶችና ለፍርድ ቤቶች እንዲሁም ለህግ ባለሙያዎች እንዲያገለግሉ ለማድረግ ኮሚሽኑ በአገራዊ ቋንቋዎች የመተርጐምና የማሰራጨት ሥራውን በቀዳሚነት እየሠራ ይገኛል፡፡
በኢትዮጵያ ሰብአዊ መብት ኮሚሽን ሀዋሣ ቅርንጫፍ ጽህፈት ቤት የመምርመራ፣ ጥበቃና ክትትል ዳይሬክቶሬት ዳይሬክተር አቶ ብርሃኑ አታሮ እንደገለፁት የአለም አቀፍ ሰብአዊ መብት ሰነዶች በአገራዊ ቋንቋ አለመተርጐምና በስፋት አለመሰራጨት ለሰነዶቹ አለመፈፀም ትልቅ ተግዳሮት ሆኖ ቆይቷል፡፡

ኮሚሽኑ ችግሩን ለመቅረፍ በሰጠው ልዩ ትኩረት ሁሉን አቀፍ የሰብአዊ መብት መግለጫ፣ የህፃናት  እና የአካል ጉዳተኞችን መብቶችና ደህነንት ስምምነት ጨምሮ የተተረጐሙ አሥር ዋና ዋና አለም አቀፍ የሰብአዊ መብቶች ስምምነት ሰነዶችን በክልሉ በሚገኙ ሁሉም ፍርድ ቤቶች አገልግሎት እንዲሰጡ 4ዐዐ ጥራዞችን ለክልሉ ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት አስረክበቧለ፡፡
ስምምነቱን በማሳወቅና በሥራ ላይ እንዲውሉ በማድረግ በኩል የፍትህ አካላት የላቀ ሚና መጫወት እንደሚጠበቅባቸው አቶ ብርሃኑ አስገዝንበዋል፡፡
ሰነዶቹን የተረከቡት የክልሉ ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ኘሬዝዳንት ተወካይ አቶ ሲሳይ ገመቹ በበኩላቸው የአለም አቀፍ ሰብአዊ መብት ስምምነቶችና ድንጋጌዎች ተተርጐመው መሠራጨታቸው ዜጐች መብቶቻቸውን በአግባቡ የሚያውቁበትን ምቹ ሁኔታ እንደሚፈጥር ገለፀዋል፡፡
የሰነደቹ ሥርጭት መስፋፋት በተይም በፍርድ ቤቶች ውሳኔ አሰጣጥ ላይ ከፍተኛ ግንዘቤ አንደሚፈጥር አስረድተዋል፡፡
አብዛኛዎቹ የፍርድ ቤት ውሳኔዎች ትኩረት የሚያደርጉት በዋና ህጐች ላይ መሆኑን የገለፁት አቶ ሲሳይ የሰብአዊ መብቶች ሰነድ መዘጋጀቱ የውሳኔ አሰጣጥ ሂደቱን የተሻለ እንደሚያደርገውም ጨምረው ተናግረዋል፡፡
ሰነዶቹን እስከታችኞቹ ፍርድ ቤቶች ድረስ ተደራሽ የማድረጉ ሥራ ተጠናክሮ እንደሚቀጥልም ነው ተወካዩ የጠቆሙት፡፡
http://www.smm.gov.et/_Text/30MesTextN905.html

በሁሉም ማዘጋጃ ቤቶች አማካይነት 9ዐ ኪሎ ሜትር አዲስ የመንግድ ከፈታና ጠረጋ እንዲሁም 92 ኪሎ ሜትር የመንገድ መብራት 74 ኪሎ ሜትር የሚጠጋ የውሃ መስመር ዝርጋታ ከሚከናወኑ ተግባራት ተጠቃሽ መሆናቸውም ተገልጿል፡፡
መምሪያው በዞኑ ከሚገኙ 42 ማዘጋጃ ቤቶች ሥራ አስኪያጆችና የስራ ሂደት አስተባባሪዎች ጋር በ2ዐዐ4 በጀት አፈፃፀምና በ2ዐዐ5 እቅድ ዙሪያ በተወያየበት ወቅት የመምሪያው ኃላፊ አቶ ለገሠ ማሬሮ እንዳሉት በተያዘው የበጀት ዓመት ከተሞችን ለነዋሪዎች ምቹ የሚያደርጉ፣ ለወጣቱ ደግሞ የሥራ እድል የሚያስገኙ ሥራዎች በተጠናከረ መልኩ ይከናወናሉ፡፡

በዚህም መሠረት 9ዐ ወጪ ቆጣቢ እና ተጀምረው ያልተጠናቀቁ 33ዐ የጋራ መኖሪያ ቤቶች ግንባታ እንዲሁም በ482 ነባር የመንግስት ቤቶች ላይ የጥገና ሥራ እንደሚከናወን ጠቁመዋል፡፡
ውይይቱን በንግግር የከፈቱት በዞኑ ዴህኢህዴን ቅርንጫፍ ጽህፈት ቤት የከተማ ዘርፍ ኃላፊ አቶ በየነ በራስ በበኩላቸው ማዘጋጃ ቤቶች ለኢንድስትሪ መስፋፋት መሠረት በመሆናቸው ለከተሞች እድገት ዋንኛ እንቅፋት የሆነውን የኪራይ ሰብሳቢነት ሰንሰለትን መበጣጠስ አለብን ብለዋል፡፡ የዞኑ የመንግስት ኮሚኒኬሽን መምሪያ ዘግቧል፡፡
http://www.smm.gov.et/_Text/30MesTextN1005.html


The United Nations said on Thursday that forcing farmers facing serious food shortages to pay back money borrowed to improve their land was "immoral". The UN’s Emergency Unit For Ethiopia (EUE) said the government should ease the credit burden on already overstretched farmers facing severe food shortages.

It said many farmers in Sidama Zone in southern Ethiopia were already relying heavily on humanitarian help from charities and could not repay their loans. In some parts of the country, farmers who have been unable to meet the repayments on money borrowed for improved seeds and fertilisers have been jailed. Interest on loans taken out by farmers can be as high as 12.5 percent – higher than bank rates – for "agricultural extension packages" of improved seeds and fertiliser. The EUE report said: "It is just immoral and impossible to expect full repayment for the supplied agricultural extension packages from farm households that are already experiencing a food shortage. 
If part of their debts cannot be written off, they will experience even bigger problems, and it will become very difficult for them to overcome this unfortunate livelihood situation without government support und humanitarian assistance." The report, entitled "Uncertain food security situation for farmers in Sidama Zone due to lack of access to farm inputs", said the government should subsidise seeds and fertiliser, and offer better credit terms. "The current extension package being disseminated and implemented throughout Ethiopia should be a supplement to indigenous cereal production rather than total substitution that threatens food security and subsistence agriculture." Sidama Zone, about 275 km south of the Ethiopian capital, Addis Ababa, is one of the zones in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regional State. It is one of the densely populated areas in Ethiopia, with about 2.5 million inhabitants in 721,00 ha of land. The farmers in the area mainly grow enset (a type of banana), coffee, maize, wheat, tef (Eragrostis abyssinica - a type of grain), barley, haricot bean and qat (Catha edulis – a shrub whose leaves have mildly narcotic properties). 
The area was particularly hard hit during the 1999 drought, and the situation has been exacerbated by massive soil erosion and failure to tackle the drought problem. The report said that the drought had rendered many farmers unable to pay back their agricultural loans. Moreover, many of them had resorted to cheap second-generation hybrid seeds, leading to reductions in yields by as much as 30 percent. "Generally, the poor productivity of crops in the last two years in Sidama Zone can be attributed on one hand to the application of no or inadequate fertiliser quantities and [on the other hand] to the use of inappropriate, poor and degenerated seeds of maize," the report said. Although the price of maize has risen - to 65 Ethiopian birr per 100 kg - but this is not yet high enough for farmers to break even. 
They estimate 100 kg should sell for 70 Ethiopian birr (US$8.20) to break even. As a result, they say, about 90,215 people and 15,000 children desperately need food aid. The report also said many under-five children were affected by acute and chronic malnutrition, resulting in kwashiorkor and marasmus. The outlook remains bleak, according to the report. "This year, the use of improved seeds and fertilisers has significantly dropped in Sidama Zone. The drop in usage is startling, with some 2,740,000 kg of fertiliser being used in 2000 dropping to 311,900 kg in 2002. The seed usage has also dropped dramatically, from 519,000 kg in 2000 to 13,600 in 2002," the report stated.
http://www.irinnews.org/printreport.aspx?reportid=32482



Abstract
Objective: To examine household food insecurity and hunger in Sidama Zone,
one of the most populous zones in southern Ethiopia.
Design: Cross-sectional survey administered individually by trained interviewers.
Food insecurity was calculated with both the Household Food Insecurity Access
Scale (HFIAS) and the Household Hunger Scale (HHS), developed by the Food
and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project.
Setting: Rural households from ten kebeles (the smallest administrative district)
selected from two agro-climatic zones in Sidama, southern Ethiopia, from December
2010 to January 2011.
Subjects: Men and women respondents from 1094 rural households were selected
using multistage sampling techniques.
Results: Using the HFIAS, 17?7 % of households were food secure. The percentage of
households that were mildly, moderately and severely food insecure was 6?8 %,
27?7 % and 47?8 %, respectively. Using the HHS, 29?0 % and 5?6 % of households
fell into the moderate and severe household hunger categories. Using multivariate
statistical techniques, five variables were significant predictors of both food insecurity
and hunger. These variables were migration of a household member, agro-climatic
zone, and younger age, less education and lower radio access for the woman. Being
eligible for safety-net credit programmes also was a predictor of hunger, while limited
animal ownership and household wealth as well as alcohol use by the household
head added to the prediction of food insecurity.
Conclusions: The study documented that food insecurity is a major concern of
smallholder farming households in the study area. A substantial majority of the
households were facing mild to severe food insecurity and hunger for an extended
period of time.
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PREAMBLE
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTSas a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.


  • All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

  • Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

  • Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

  • No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

  • No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

  • Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

  • All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.

Article 8.

  • Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

  • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

  • Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

  • (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.
  • (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

  • No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state.
  • (2) Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution.
  • (2) This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to a nationality.
  • (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

Article 16.

  • (1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
  • (2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses.
  • (3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others.
  • (2) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property.

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance.

  • Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
  • (2) No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
  • (2) Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country.
  • (3) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures.

  • Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
  • (2) Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work.
  • (3) Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection.
  • (4) Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests.

  • Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
  • (2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection.

Article 26.

  • (1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.
  • (2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.
  • (3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

  • (1) Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits.
  • (2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author.

  • Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.

  • (1) Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible.
  • (2) In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
  • (3) These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

  • Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.


posted by Luke


Tiny changes are sometimes the most significant.
The Ethiopian Commodity Exchange recently renamed one of that country’s most iconic products: Sidamo Coffee, long one of the best-recognized coffee brands in the world, will now be officially traded as Sidama Coffee. The switcharoo has passed with little fanfare, and many American roasters continue to offer their customers Sidamo—though this trend does seem to be changing.
What’s the story here?
Ethiopia’s Sidama zone (also formerly Sidamo) occupies the southwestern corner of that country, spreading out across a landscape of green hills from the great Rift Valley lakes of Abaya and Awasa. Coffee originated not far from here—the details are debated, but the northern Rift Valley and the Horn of Africa are generally recognized as the ancestral, wild homeland of arabica coffee.
Taking a restThe Sidama people have lived here for longer than any tradition can recall, part of the Kushitic cultural patchwork that extends from Sudan south to Tanzania and Uganda. While the Greeks may have referred to this area as Ethiopia (“Land of Burned People”) for millennia, the Sidama region was not a part of the Ethiopian state until 1893, when Ethiopia’s Abyssinian king Menelik II occupied the loosely-governed Kushitic chiefdoms around the Rift Valley. In keeping with the traditions of empires large and small, this conquest led to a long period of social upheaval and a concerted effort by the Ethiopian government to dismantle “local” identities in favor of a broader sense of “Ethiopian-ness.” Enter the name-game: to signify a break with the past and the end of a distinctive Sidama identity, the government named their newly-acquired province Sidamo—a subtle, but direct, negation of the people, their language, and their sense of place.
sorting cherriesWhen Ethiopia finally made its entrance onto the world coffee stage as a distinctive “terroir” in the mid-Twentieth Century, Western coffee importers had little information to go off of, except for what they learned from centralized (often state-owned) coffee exporters and other middle-men. Thus, the name Sidamo entered the Western coffee lexicon. And because the coffee from this region is exceptional—both as a blend component and as a single-origin—Western roasters and consumers came to know and love the name very quickly.
The first rumblings of change began in 2007. In October of that year, Side Goodo, a self-described Sidama intellectual, published an open polemic letter titled “There are no people called ‘Sidamo:’ stop the use of ‘Sidamo’ misnomer.” In that letter, he outlined the general history of the Sidama people and detailed their incorporation into the Ethiopian state, emphasizing the disenfranchisement and offense many Sidama people had come to associate with the “Sidamo” name.
Goodo had not specifically targeted the coffee business in his letter—in fact he didn’t even mention it—but industry ears-to-the-ground quickly took note, and the letter (plus a fewothers like it) began circulating in the coffee blogosphere. A few roasters—mainly those, such as ourselves, dealing directly with farming communities—re-named their offerings to little fanfare (and only modest customer confusion). The only real blip in the transition wasegg on the faces of some roasters and cafe owners who had fought to get lazy-tongued employees to pronounce the name “properly” for years, only to discover that the employees were (inadvertantly) right.
While many offering sheets still say “Sidamo,” this story is steadily progressing towards a happy ending. The Ethiopian Coffee Exchange’s move to re-designate coffee from the Sidama region is an important, if quiet, acknowledgment of past wrongs, and it means that Western importers will now be greeted with the proper name on every contract. So with bags of coffee now leaving the country clearly marked “Sidama,” it’s up to those of us on the final end of the coffee business to break with tradition as well. The Sidama people deserve to have their name back.
Sidama kids
The welcome party for a Coop Coffees delegation to the Sidama Coffee Farmers Cooperative Union
http://www.thirdcoastcoffee.com/wp/2011/06/sidama-to-sidamo-to-sidama/