POWr Social Media Icons

Friday, July 6, 2012



በፉቄ ዲሬሞ  ከሃዋሳ ሲዳማ 

ሰሞኑን መንግስት ሲዳማን ርስት አልባ ለማድረግ የሸረበውን ሴራ ለውይይት መቅረቡ መረጃ የደረሰው ሰፊው የሲዳማ ሕዝብ ተቃውሞአቸውን በተለያየ መልኩ ገልጸዋል፤ አሁንም በመግለጽ ላይ ይገኛል ፡፡ ስለሆነም ይህንን ተከትሎ ያልጠበቀው ነገር የገጠመው አቶ ሺህፈራው ሲዳማ በሬ ወልዷል በማለት ሕዝቡን ይቀሰቅሳሉ  በማለት ለማስተባበል ሞክሮ ነበር፡፡ ለመሆኑ ሲዳማ በሬ ወልዷል ሜቼ አለ? ለምን ይዋሻል? ከግብር አበሮቹ ጋር በመሆን በሬ ወልዷል ብሎ ለማሳመን በበሬ ቂጥ ላይ እንግደ ልጅ ለጥፎ እንዲሁም ደም ቀብቶ በሬ ወልዷል ስሉን ይህማ በሬ ነው በሬ ወልዶም አያውቅም ልወልድም አይችልም አልን እንጂ፡፡
     ለራሱ ተሞኝቶ የሲዳማን ሕዝብ ለማሞኘት ያደረጉትን ጥረት ከሕጻን እስከ አዋቂ ስላወገዘና  ድብቅ አጀንዳቸውን ገሀድ ስላወጡ አቶ ሺፈራዉ ሽጉጤ በደቡብ FM ሬዲዮ ሲያስተባብሉና ሲሸፋፍኑ ይባስ ብሎ  ሰፊውን የሲዳማን ሕዝብ ሌቦች/ዘራፊዎች ብሎ በሚዲያ ተሳደቡ፡፡"አባት ሲያማ; ልጅ ቢሰማ; ያያል በጠማማ፡፡'እንዲሉ ባለፈው መሬትን ምክንያት በማድረግ በተዘጋጀው በህዝብ  ውይይት መድረኮችም ወቅት በተመሳሳይ ስድብ ዘራፊዎች ተብለን በሚዲያ መሰደባችን ይታወሳል፡፡ ዛሬ ደግሞ ያንኑ ስድባቸውን ሲያጠናክሩ ስራ አጥ ወጣቶች የሲዳማን ስምና ባህል ለማጥፋት የተሰማሩ ዘራፊዎች ሲዳማን የማይወክሉ ናቸው በማለት ለሲዳማ ማንነት፣ ባህልና ታሪክ ተቆርቋሪ ለመምሰል ሞከሩ፡፡ "የሜዳ ላይ ድብብቆሽ ይሉታል ይሄ ነዉ'
     አንድ ነገር ልብ እንበል ለዛሬው ወቅታዊ አጀንዳቸው ማለትም ሀዋሳን በስብጥር/ በጋራ እናስተዳድር ለሚለው መግቢያ እንዲሆናቸው ባለፈው "የመሬት ወረራ' የሚሉትን አስመልክቶ ሰፊውን የሲዳማ ሕዝብ ስብዕናና ሞራል በእጅጉ በሚጎዳ የስድብ መዓት ምንም ማስተካከያ ሳይደረግበት በቀጥታ በFM ሚዲያ ሲያስተላልፉ ነበር፡፡በወቅቱም የነበረውን አጠቃላይ ድባብ አስመልክቶ የFM ጋዜጠኛ ጥያቄ አንስቶላቸው ነበር፡፡ጥያቄውም እንዲህ ነው፡- "ሰሞኑን "የሀዋሳ ከተማ የፌደራል ከተማ ልትሆን/ ፌደራል ሊወስድ ነው' የሚል ወረ ይናፈሳል ይህንን እርሶ ምን ይላሉ/እንዴት ያያሉ' የሚል ሲሆን  አቶ ሺፈራው ሲመልሱ ሀዋሳን ፌደራል የሚወስድበት ምንም አግባብ የለም፡፡ ነገር ግን አንዳንድ ግለሰቦች ሌላ ተልዕኮ ያሉአቸው ሲዳማን ለመቀስቀስ የሚያናፍሱት ወሬ ነው ካሉ በኃላ ሀዋሳ የክልሉና የዞኑ ዋና ከተማ ነው፡፡ የከተማው ሕዝብ ከየትኛውም ብሄር ይጠቅመኛል/ያስተዳድረኛል ያለውን ብቃት/ ቁመና ያለውን መወከል ይችላሉ በማለት መልሷል፡፡ መልሳቸውም ሰሞኑን  በሜትሮፖሊታን ከተማችንን እናስተዳድር ሚለዉ  ሴራ ቀደም ብሎ መወሰኑን ያሳያል፡፡  በአሁኑ ሰዓት ይህንን አስመሳይነታቸውን በግልጽ በመቃወም የልዕልናዉን፣ የማንነትና የባለቤትነት ድምፅ ያሰማውን ሕዝብ "አህያውን ፈርቶ ዳውላውን ' እንዲሉ የብሔሩን ጥያቄ/ተቃዉሞ በስራ አጦችና በዘራፊዎች አላክከዋል፡፡
    የሲዳማ ወጣት/ተማሪዎች ከሕጻን እስከ አዋቂ የሲዳማ የህልውናው፣የክቡሩ፣ የመብቱ መገፈፍና ንቀት አንገብግቦአቸው ከእንግዲህ ይብቃን ማለታቸዉ በእውነት ዘራፊዎች ያስብላልን? እጅግ በጣም ያሳዝናል፡፡ i˜ôC møŠ~Eù°ó iUdd| „ME‰ከት ከከተሜዉ÷ †^ˆ jF´V ¬U^ i\Ô ˜M} ˆº}p †}‰ü jGmPˆU „‰üw} ¼‘ „Gj ¬^ˆðZ|‘} iM´|ኛ ብዙሃን ሲደሰኩር ተደምጧል፡፡
 አቶ ሺፈራው እራሱ  ተማሪ ማለት የለውጥ ሀይል፤ተመራማሪ፣ ሀገር ገንቢና የሀገር ተረካቢ ናቸው ማለቱ እውነት ሆኖ ሳለ ተማሪዎች ነገሮችን በስፋትና በጥልቀት ሳያዩና፡ ሳይመራመሩ በጭፍን በሌሎች ግፊት እንደሚነዱ፤ ማሰብና ማብሰልሰል እንደማይችሉ እንዲሁም የሲዳማ ህልዉና እንደማይገዳቸዉ አድርጎ መገመታቸውና መሳደባቸው"ተማሪ የለዉጥ ኃይል ነዉ!!'ብለዉ የተናገሩትን የገዛ ሀሳባቸዉን ያፋልስባቸዋል፡፡
"ሌባ ሲነቃበት እራሱ መልሶ ሌባ ሌባ ብሎ ሰራቂና ጤነኛዉ እንዳይለይ እንደሚያደርግ፡፡ 'ድርጊታቸው/ድብቅ አጀንዳቸው  ብቻ ሳይሆን ሊያደርጉ  ያሰቡትም ገሀድ ስላወጣና ስለተደረሰባቸው እየተሳደቡ ያሞካሻሉ፡፡ "እንኳንስ ሲሸጡኝ ሲያስማሙኝ አውቃለው፡፡' “Basura dichabinshanni!! በሲዳማ ሕዝብ ላይ ግልጽ ጥላቻ ያላቸውና ተፈጥሮ ያደለው ሀዋሳ መልካዓምድርና በፈጣን እድገት ላይ ከሚገኙ የሀገሪቱ ከተሞች በመጀመሪያ ረድፍ መገኘቱና ባለቤቱም ሲዳማ በመሆኑ ብቻ ሰይጣናዊ  ቅንዓት ያደረባቸው "ሊበሏት የፈለጓትን አሞራ ጅግራ ይሏታል' እንዲሉ የሲዳማን ብሔር ለማጥቃትና ርስት አልባ ለማድረግ ሲባል ብቻ ከተማዋ እንዳላደገችና ለዚህም ዋና መነሾ የአስተዳዳሪዎች/የሲዳማ ተሹዋሚዎች ብቃት ማነስ ነዉ በሚል / የተሸበበ ሴራ(galvanized issue) "ከተማችንን በmetropolitan እንምራ'በተሰኘ ባለ13 ገጽ የያዘ  ሰነድ ለዉይይት ማቅረባቸው/ማሰባቸው ሲመነዘር የገዛ ቤትህን/ሚስትህን መምራት ስላቃተህ  ሚስትህን አጋራኝ እንደ ማለት ነው፡፡ እንዲህ ዓይነቱ ምዋርተኛ ነው ፡፡ የእነዚህ ነውረኞች የድፍረትና የንቀት ሴራቸው በሀገር ውስጥ ያሉትንና ከሀገር ውጭ ለሚገኙ ለብሔሩ ተወላጆች/በሲዳማ ብሔር ወዳጆች ዘንድ ታላቅ ቁጣ ስለቀሰቀሰ ደጋሾቹ የሚይዙትን የሚጨብጡትን በማጣት ጉዳዩን በድጋሚ ለማየት አቆይተናል/ትተናል ብለን እንዋሽ በማለት ህዘቡን ለማረጋጋት ጥረታቸውን ቀጥሏል፡፡
 ነገር ግን "ሆድን በጎመን ቢደልሉት ጉልበት በዳገት ይለግማል'ነውና ተረቱ የገመቱት ሁሉ ልክ ቢመስላቸዉም ¡\ôªN} Kšk }fm-CEô|‘} ደጋሾቹ፤ \öX ¡Nó`ki‘ iôU© ~[ i†}ªóC „‰üx} jGPˆV {iZ::
ለዚህም የሲዳማ ብሔር ተወላጆችና ወዳጆች በሀገር ውስጥና ከሀገር ውጭ የሚገኙ በሙሉ ሲዳማን  ታሪክና ርስት አልባ ለማድረግ የተሸረበን ሴራ ለመቀልበስና መብቱን፣ማንነቱን፣ክብሩን ለማስጠበቅ አንድ ሆነው በአንድነት ቆርጠው ተነስተዋል፡፡በዚህም የተደናገጡ "የክልሉ አስተዳዳሪ' በአሁኑ ሰዓት ሕዝቡ እኛ ወዳላሰብነው አቅጣጫ ስለሄደ አጀንዳውን በድጋሚ ለማየት አቆይተናል/ትተናል እያሉ አንዴ ላይ አንዴ ታች በማለት ላይ ይገኛሉ፡፡ የትኛውን ሕጻን ለማሳመን/ለማታለል የሚደረግ ጥረት እንደሆነ በውል ባይታወቅም እነርሱ ግን ጆሮ አጥተው የሰማ ይስማ ብሎ አጀንዳውን ትተናል ይላሉ፡፡ ሌላኛዉ አስገራሚ ነገር አንዳንድ የሲዳማ ዞን አስተዳዳሪዎች/ለሆዳቸዉ እንጂ ለህሊናቸዉ ማይገዙ(የፖለቲካ እቃቃ ጨዋታ የማይገባቸዉ፣ ለትዉልድ የማያስቡና ዛሬ ብቻ በልተን እንሙት ባዮች መኖራቸው ነው፡፡
 "የሰው ሞኝ አንድ እንጨት ያስራል'እንዲሉ ሲዳማ ክልል የሚሆነው ኢህአዴግ ሞቶ ሀውልት ከቆመለት በኃላ ነው፤ጥያቄያቸው የሕልም እንጀራ ነው፤"mulla agadu giira gede huguggi yite qiddaareeti mittoreno diabitanno' ያለውና ሰነዱን  ከነእንትና ከነእንትና ጋር ያረቀቀው ምክትል ርዕስ መስተዳድር አቶ አለማየሁአሰፋና
ግብረአበሮቱ  የመላው ሲዳማ ሕዝብ ያልረሳውን ሀዘን እየቀሰቀሰ ምንም አያመጡም ያለው፤ ሲዳማን አስገድሎ/አስጨፍጭፎ እንደነ ሀይለማሪያም ደሳለኝ፣መለሰ ማሪሞ …ስልጣን ለማግኘት በቀን የሚቃዡት ይባስ ብሎ እነዚያ የሲዳማ የነፃነት ታጋዮች የተቀበሩበትን፣ አስከረኖቻቸው የወደቀበትንና ደማቸው የፈሰሰበትን ሀዋሳ ወይንም ሁለተኛ ስሙ ሲዳማ  በጋራ እንናስተዳድር ማለቱ/ ድፍረቱ የብዙዎቻችንን ቁስል አገረሽቷል፡፡ ከዚህም የተነሳ እንኳን ዛሬ ስማቸው/የሞቱበት ዓላማቸው በስፋት ተነስተው ይቅርና እንዲሁም ከማንባት ያልተቆጠቡ  እናቶች የዛሬ 10 ዓመት የልጆቻቸውን አስከሬን እንኳ ከወደቀበት ከሜዳ እንዳያነሱና እንዳያዩ በፖሊስ የተከለከሉበትን እያሰቡ እንባቸውን ይራጫሉ፡፡ ለዚህም "Hindatu lame hige Digiramanno!! ' በማለት ሰፊው የሲዳማ ሕዝብ በሀገር ውስጥ ከሀገር ውጭ የሚገኘዉ በሙሉ ሴት/ወንድ፣ህፃን አዋቂ ፣ተማሪ ሰራተኛና ነጋዴ አርሶ አደር ሳይል መብቱንና ህልውናውን ለማስከበር ከእግዚአብሔር በታች የእናቶችን እንባ ለማበስ ያለማመንታት ለመታገል በአንድነት ተነስተዋል፡፡
ከዚህም የተነሳ መንግስት እያደረሰበት ያለውን በደልና  ኢ-ሰባዓዊ ድርጊታቸውን በመቃወም የተቃውሞውን ድምፅ ከፍ አድርገው በዓለም አቀፍ ሚዲያዎችና በጋዜጣ ለሕዝብ ጆር በማድረስ ሚስጥራቸውን ገሀድ በማውጣት ላይ ይገኛል፡፡  ለዚህም ግራ የተጋባው የደህዴን መንግስት ሰኔ 21ና22/04ዓ.ም በኢትዮ.ቴሌቭžን የሲዳማ ሕዝብ የክልል ጥያቄ ያነሳውና ሀዋሳ ተሸጠች ያለው የሲዳማ ሕዝብ ሳይሆን የግል ጥቅም የሚፈልጉና ጥቅማቸው የተነካባቸው ናቸው በማለት መንግስት በሚገርም ሁኔታ የዉሸት ናዳዉን በዜና በማስተላለፉ በሲዳማ ብሔር ብቻ ሳይሆን በመላው ዉስጥ አዋቂ ሕዝብ ዘንድ ሚዲያቸው ተዓማኒነትን አጥቷል፡፡
እንዲያዉም እንዲያዉ ነሽ እንኳን ዘንቦብሽ!! ይህንንም ተከትሎ በሲዳማ ዞን ባሉ 19ኙም ወረዳና 2ከተማ አስተዳደርን ጨምሮ ከህጻን እስከ አዋቂ መንግስት በየሚዲያዎቹ የሚሰጠውን የውሸት ማስተባቢያዎቻቸውን፣ ስድባቸውንና ለማሸማቀቅ የሚያደርጉትን ድርግት በተለያየ መልኩ አውግዟል፡፡
በተጨማሪም ሰኔ 23 2004ዓ.ም በሀዋሳ ዩኒቨርሲቲ ግቢ ውስጥ በተደረገው ስብሰባ በዩኒቨርሲቲው የሚገኙ ቁጥራቸው ከ5000 በላይ የሚሆኑ የብሔሩ ተወላጅ ተማሪዎች ለአቶ ሺፈራዉ ሽጉጤ ካቀረቡት በርካታ ጥያቄዎች፡-
1. ጥያቄ ህጋዊና ሕገመንግስታዊ የሲዳማ የክልል ጥያቄ በአስቸኳይ እንዲመለስ የሚል ሲሆን፤
ሲመልሱ ጥያቄያችሁ ተገቢ ነው ነገር ግን ሲዳማ ክልል ማግኘት የሚችለው በ1998 ነበር በወቅቱ ብሄሩን ወክለው ከጠቅላይ ሚኒስቴሩ ጋር የተነጋገሩ ባለሀብቶችና የሀገር ሽማግሌዎች ሁለት ሁለት ኮትና 750 ብር አበል ወስደው   ለሲዳማ ክልል አያስፈልግም ለእኛ ልማት ብቻ ያስፈልገናል በማለት አጥፍተዋል፡፡ "አሁንም ክልል ለመሆን መጠየቅ ይቻላል!!' በማለት ድሮ በመድረክ እንደ አራስ ነብር የሚሆን ለዝቦ ዛሬ ቤተሰባዊ ውይይት እንወያያለን በማለት የተማሪውን ሆድ ለማባባት ሙከራ ቢያደርግም አልተሳካበትም፡፡ የሚገርመው አይነቃብኝም በማለት በልበሙሉነት ለማሳመን መጣሩ ነው፡፡ በ1998ዓ.ም  የሲዳማን ሕዝብ  የክልል ጥያቄ ለመቀልበስ ከግማሽ ሚሊዮን ብር በላይ በመመደብ ቀንደኛ ቀንደኛ ለሆኑት/ለሆዳቸዉ ላድሩትና ጠኔ አሁኑኑ እንደሚገድላቸዉ ለሚያስቡት መሬት፣ስልጣንና ሌሎች ጥቅማጥቅሞችን በማንበሻበሽ ክልል አያስፈልገንም  ልማት ብቻ በሉ ያስባለዉና ጉቦ ሰጪው/ አመቻቺዉ እራሱ አቶ ሺፈራው ዛሬ ሽማግሌዎችን ጥፋተኞች እነርሱ ናቸው በማለት ራሱን ነፃ አድርጓል፡፡ እዚህ ጋር የሲዳማ ሕዝብ መቼም የማይረሳዉ የሲዳማን ታሪክ ቀባሪዎች ሲዳማን የማሞኘታቸዉ ብዛት ምንም ጎፈሬ የሌለበት ባዶ መሬት ላልቸገራቸዉ ለዉስን(1000) የሲዳማ ብሔር ሽማግሌዎች ለክልል ጥያቄ ማባበያ እንዲሆን በሐዋሳ ከተማ 200 ካሬ(pilot of ground) በነፍስ ወከፍ መስጠታቸዉ ነዉ፡፡
2. ጥያቄ  የሲዳማ ሕዝብ የክልል ጥያቄ ያነሳውና ሀዋሳ ተሸጠች ያለው የሲዳማ ሕዝብ ሳይሆን የግል ጥቅም የሚፈልጉና ጥቅማቸው የተነካባቸው ናቸው በማለት በኢትዮጵያ ቴሌቨዥን ስለተላለፈው ዜና/ስድብ ራሱ በFM ሲዳማን ዘራፊዎች በማለት ስለተናገረው ተጠይቋል፡፡
መልስ . ሌላውን በመካድ በኢትዮጵያ ቴሌቨዥን የተላለፈውን ዜና በተመለከተ እኔ እራሴ አልተቀበልኩትም ለምን አላችሁ ብየ ደውየላቸው ነበር በማለት ዋሽተው አልፈዋል፡፡ ስለዚህ እርሶ ራስዎ  ያልተስማሙበት ከሆነ ቴሌቨዥን የተላለፈዉ ዜና ማስተባበያ/እርምት ይሰጥበት በማለት ተማሪዎቹ ተግዳሮት ፈጥረዉበት ነበር፡፡
3. በአሁኑ ሰዓት በየወረዳዎች በሰላም ሀገር የፌደራል ልዩ ሀይል በማሰማራት በሲዳማ ሕዝብ ላይ የስነ-ልቦና ጫና ለመፍጠረና ለማስገደል ያሰፈራችሃቸውን በአስቸኳይ አስወጡልን በማለት ጠይቀዋል፡፡
              ሌላው ዜና
1. ሰኔ 24/2004ዓ.ም አቶ ሺህፈራው ሽጉጤ በሀዋሳ ከተማ ሲዳማ ባሕል አደራሽ ሀዋሳን በጋራ እናስተዳድር በሚለዉ አጀንዳ ዙሪያ ለመነጋገር የዞን፣የከተማና የወረዳ አሰተዳዳሪዎችን ሰብሰቦ አወያይቷል፡፡ በዚህም ወቅት አቶ ሺህፈራው በሚለው ዙሪያ የተዘጋጀው የውይይት ሰነድ እንዴት ወደ ሕዝብ እጅ ደረሰ ለመጀመሪያ ይህንን ሰነድ የተፈራረምነው ለሰባት ሆነን ነበርን እንዴት ወጣ ካሉ በኋላ የአመራሮች ሞራል በመንካት አሸማቅቋቸዋል፤ እንዲሁም አስፈራርተቸዋል፤ የድርጅት አባል ሳትሆኑ እናንተ ተቃዋሚዎች ናችሁ ካሉ በኋላ በየወረዳዉ ወርዳችሁ ህብረተሰቡን ለሲዳማ ክልል አያስፈልግም እያላችሁ ህብረተሰቡን አሳምኑ ብለዉ ቢያሰናብቷቸዉም የአመራር ክፍሉ ያላመኑትን ለማሳመን ፈራ ተባ እያሉ ስብሰባቸዉ ተበትኗል፡፡
2. የደህዴን መንግስት ሲዳማ ለመምታት ሆነ ብለው ሲዳማዎች የወላይታ ብሔር በአሰቃቂ ሁኔታ እየገደሏቸው ነው የብዙዎቹን አንገት ቆራርጦ ሐይቅ ውስጥ እየጣሉ ናቸውና በአስቸኳይ ልዩ ሀይል ይላክልን በማለት ያስመጣው ፌደራል ፖሊስ በብሔሩ ተወላጆች ላይ ተልዕኳቻን በሚገባ  በመፈፀም በሲዳማ ብሔር ላይ ከባድ ድብደባ በማካሔድ የአካል፣በስነ-ልቦናቸው ላይ ችግር በማድረስ ላይ ይገኛሉ፡፡ ለአብነትም በሲዳማ ዞን አለታ ጩኮ ወረዳ በርካታ ሰላማዊ ዜጎች በፈደራል ተደብድበው ከፍተኛ የጤና መታወክ ደረሶባቸው  ህክምና እየተከታተሉ ስሆን ሌሎቹ ደግሞ በእስራት ቤት መሆናቸው የሚታወስ ሲሆን በሲዳማ ክልል ዋና ከተማ ሀዋሳ ላይ ሰኔ 24/2004ዓ.ም  ከምሽቱ 1፡00 ገደማ  ሰላማዊ የሲዳማ ዜጎች ከሰርግ ሲመለሱ በሀዋሳ ከተማ በአቶ ወልአማኑኤል ዱባል ሀውልት አጠገብ በሲዳሚኛ እየዘመሩ ከነበሩት ሰረገኞች መካከል አንዱ በፌደራል(አጋዚ ልዩ ኮማንዶ )ፖሊስ ውስጥ የወላይታ ብሔር በሆነው  ያለምንም ምክንያት ክፉኛ ሲጎዳ ሌሎች ሰርገኞችንና በሰላም ባመሹበት ሰፈር የተኩስ እሩምታ ሰምቶ ምን ተፈጠረ ብሎ በመደናገጥና ለሰርገኞች በእነዚህ ለልዩ ሀይሎች የደረሰባቸውን መጥፎ ሀዘን ጩሄት ሰምተው ፖሊሶች የፈጠሩትን ሁከት እንደ ዜጋ ለማረጋጋት የወጣውን  የሲዳማ ብሔርና የከተማውን ሕዝብ ከምሽቱ 1፡00- 7ሰዓት ድረስ በቆየው ሁካታ በሰላማዊ ሰዎች በሲዳማ ቡና ቤት(ካፊተሪያ) ቡና በመጠጣት ላይ የነበሩትን ጨምሮ በጥቅቱ 500 ሰዎች በገዛ ቀኤያቸው፣በምድራቸውና በሰላም ሀገር ኢ-ሰብዓዊ እርምጃ/ ድብደባ ተካሂዶባቸው በአሁኑ ሰዓት ብዙዎች በራሳቸው ወጪ ህኪምና በመከታተል ላይ ናቸው፡፡
ለዚህም መንግስት ካስደበደበ በኋላ የተጎዱትንም ሆነ  የሌሎች ስሜት ለመፈተሽ ብሎ ቤት ለቤት እየዞሩ የሚጠይቁት ኮሚቴ (ሰላዮች) በማቋቋም ወደ ተጎዱት ቤት ሰዷል፡፡
ኢ-ሰብዓዊ ድብደባ ተካሂዶባቸው  
     ማሳሰቢያ ለብሔሩ ተወላጆች በሙሉ፡-
1. በአገር ዉስጥና ከዉጭ ሀገር ምትገኙ ከህጻን እስከ አዋቂ በአንድ ሀሳብ በመሆን የመጣብንን ድብቅ ጦር ለመመከት ብቸኛዉ መፍትሔ ክልል የመሆን ጥያቄአችንን መንግስት እስኪመልስ ድረስ ያለመታከት እጅና ጓንት ሆነን ያለ ምንም  ልዩነት ትግላችንን እንቀጥል!!! መንግስት ከሚያመጣዉ አስመሳይ ማባበል እንጠንቀቅ!!
2. ለሲዳማ ክልል ከተሰጠ ሌሎችም ይሰጠን ይላሉ የሚል ፍርሃት የገባው የሲዳማ ሕዝብ የነፍስ ግብር የከፈለበትንና ህገመንግስተዊ የማንነት/ የህልውናችን ራስን በራስ የማስተዳደር መብታችን/ ጥያቄአችን እንደ ጥያቄ ተቀብሎ እስኪመልስ ትግላችንን መቀጠል አማራጭ የለለው ምርጫ ስለሆነ ይህንን ለማሳካት በየትኛውም ዕድሜ ክልል፣ት/ት ደረጃ፣ስራ ላይ የሚትገኙ በሙሉ እያንዳንዱ ሰው በጣም የሚያምን/የሚቀርብ አምስት አምስት ጠንካራ ታጋዮችን በመፍጠር፣ መረጃ በመለዋወጥ ጠንካራ  መረብ በመዘርጋት ትግላችንን/ ሕልማችንን እውን ማድረግ፤
3. ሀዋሳን በጋራ እናስተዳድር የተባለው አጀንዳ ቀርቷል በማለት የሚዋሹህን እነዚያ ተላላኪዎች በሲዳማ ልጆች ደም ላይ የሚረማመዱትን ለይተህ እወቃቸው
4. ሲዳማ ማንነት/ታሪክና ስም ያለው ስለሆነ ከእንግዲህ ወዲህ በአቅጣጫ መጠራት እንደሌለበት በሚገባ ማስገንዘብ፤
5. ሲዳማን የአዳዲስ ሀሳቦች/ፍልስፍናዎች መሞከሪያ/ሙከራ ጣቢያ(centre /tools of experiment) አድርጎ መጠቀም እንደማይችሉና/ማሰብም ስህተት እንደሆነ ማስገንዘብ፤
6. ይህን ሀዋሳን በጋር እናስተዳድር የሚለው አጀንዳቸው ትተናል የሚሉት ሕዝቡን ለማረጋጋት እንጂ  በእነርሱ እምነት የማይቀር መሆኑን እንዲታውቁ ከዚህ ሀሳብ ብዙም መነታረክ እንደማያስፈልግና የሲዳማ ዋናውና ቁንጮ ዓላማ የክልል ጥያቄ ብቻ እንደሆነ ማስረገጥ፤
7. በሲዳማ ህልውና ላይ የሚመጡብህን አንተን እየመሰሉ የሚጎዱህን(ጆሮ ጠቢዎችን) ተላላኪዎችን በመለየት ከማንኛውም ዐይነት ህብረት እንዳይሳተፉ ማድረግ/የሚመለስ ከሆነ መምከር፤
8. በሲዳማ ህዝብ ጉዳይ ዙሪያ የሀገር ሽማግሌዎች ብቻ ስለሀዋሳ/ሲዳማ ይናገራሉና/ዉሳኔ ይሰጣሉና እነርሱ ይምጡ ማለት የከዚህ ቀደም እቃ እቃ ጨዋታ እንደሆነ አዉቀን ማንኛዉንም ዉሳኔ ለማሳለፍ ሕግ አወቅ/ ምሁራን የተካተቱበት መሆን እንዳለበት ሁሉም የብሔሩ ተወላጅ ጠንቅቆ እንዲያዉቅ፤
ሀገር ውስጥም ሆነ ከሀገር ውጭ ባሉ በየዩኒቨርስቲዎች የሚገኙ የብሔሩ ተወላጆች ተማሪዎች ጠንካራ ህብረት በመፍጠርና ከኩታገጠምዎቻችን (በ4ቱም አቅጣጫ በድንበር ከምንገናኛቸው ጎረቤቶቻችን (ኦሮሚያ ክልል) ጋር ያለን/እያደረግን ያለነውን ወንድማማችነታችንን ማጠናከር እንዳለብን በሚገባ መገንዘብ፤
9. በሌላ ወንጀል ከታሰሩት በስተቀር በሲዳማ ሕዝብ የህልውና/በማንነት ጥያቄ የተነሳ በየትኛውም ወረዳ የታሰሩት  የብሔሩ አብራክ ክፋዮች ባስቸኳይ እንዲፈቱ ለማድረግ ሁሉም መረጃ በመለዋወጥ የጋራ አቋም መያዝ፡፡
10. መንግስት ድብቅ አጀንዳውን ለማራመድ ሲፈልግ የሌለ  ምክንያት አለመዘንጋት፤
ለምሳሌ አቶ ሀይለማሪያም ደሳለኝን የደቡብ ርዕሰ መስተዳደር ለማድረግ ተፈልጎ በፊት የነበሩትን አቶ አባተ ኪሾን በሀሰት 72000000(ሰባ ሁለት ሚሊየን )ብር መዝብåል በማለት በግፍ አስረው ከዚያም  በነፃ ለቀቀው፤ ሌሎችን እንዲሁ ማሳሰሩ ግልጽ ነው፡፡ አሁንም በሲዳማ ላይ ያላቸውን ድብቅ ጥላቻ ለመፈፀም ብዙዎችን መሬት ወረዋል፤የማስተዳደር ብቃት የላቸውም በማለት አስåቸዋል፡፡ ስለዚህ ይህንን ሴራቸውን ጠንቅቀን  እንወቅ!!!!!!!!!
ለታጋዮች          
 የዴሞክራሲ ካባ ለባሾች ቀይ ሽብር ያካሄዱባችሁ ተማራማሪዎች
እናንተ የሲዳማ አርበኞች የሲዳማ ሕዝብ የለውጥ ናፋቂዎች፤
የቁርጥ ቀን ልጆች የሲዴ ፋኖዎች፤
በእጃችሁ የያዛችሁ የሰላም ምልክት የዘንባባ ዝንጣፊዎች፤
ሰላማዊ ዘጎች የተረሸናቸሁ በኢህአደግ ባንዳዎች፡፡
ለታሪክ የሞታችሁ ሁሌም ትውልድ የሚያስታውሳችሁ፤
ሀይለማሪያም ደሳለኝ መለሰ ማሪሞ እንዲሁም…ጥይት የደገሱባችሁ፤
ያ በሜዳ ላይ/በየጥሻው ሥር እዚህም እዘያ የወደቀው ሬሳችሁ፤
ህጋዊና ህገመንግስታዊ ሆኖ ጥያቄያችው በግፍ የተረሸናችሁ፤
ሳትጨርሱ ያለቃችሁበት ያ ሕዝባዊ  አጀንዳችሁ፤
ሕጻን  አዋቂ በልቡ የያዘዉ ያረገዘዉ ጉዳያችሁ፤
ጊዜዉ ደርሷል መልስ ሊያገኝ መሻታችሁ፤ ልጠራ ስማችሁ
ሁሌም ይገለጣል ማህደራችሁ እንዲሁ ፈስሶ አይቀርም ደማችሁ፡፡
እነዚያ በእናንተ ሞት ሊከብሩ ለስልጣን ብሎ የጨፈጨፉአቸው ጨካኖች፤
በጥይት ናዳ የሬሳችሁ ማንነታት ሁሉ እስክጠፋ የዘመቱባችሁ እነዚያ ተኩላዎች፤
በፀሀይ በሜዳ በየጥሻው ስር ሬሳችሁን የጣሉአችሁ  ኢህአዴጎች፤
በሰውም በእግ/ርም ዘንድ ይጠየቃሉ እነዚያ ባንዳዎች የኢህአደግ አሸባሪዎች፡፡

ማስታወሻ፦ ከላይ በጽሁፉ ላይ የተነሱ ሀሳቦች የኣስተያየት ስጪው ኣቋም እንጂ የብሎጉ ኣይደለም።
በወቅታዊው የሲዳማ ሁኔታ ላይ ያላችሁን ኣስተያየት በሚቀጠለው ኣድራሻ e-mail: nonomanoto@gmail.com   ብላችሁ ኣድርሱን እኛም ለኣንባቢዎች እናደርሳለን።




በፉቄ ዲሬሞ ከሃዋሳ ሲዳማ 


የሲዳማ  ህዝብ እንደ ፈረንጆ ች ዘመን ኣቆጣጠር ከ1993 ኣንስቶ በኣቅጣጫ  ከሚጠራው ክልል ጋር ከተጠረዘ ጊዜ ጅምሮ፤ ክልል ይገባኛል ጥያቄ በተደጋጋሚ ኣንስቷል።

ሲዳማ የክልል ይገባኛል ጥያቄ ምንም እንኳን በሰላማዊ መንገድ ህገ መንግስቱ በሚፈቅደው መሰረት በየጊዜው የቀረቡ ቢሆኑም  ለጥያቄው  ከሚመለከተው ኣካል የተሰጡ ምላሾች ግን ህገ መንግስቱን በማይፈቅደው መ ንገድ መሆናቸው ብዙዎችን ግራ ኣጋብተዋል።

የዛሬ ኣስር ኣመት የህገ መንግስቱ ኣርቃቅዎ ች  እና ኣጽዳቅዎች ህገ መንግስቱ በማይፈቅደው መንገድ የተሰጡት የክልል ጥያቄው  ምላ ሽ  ከሃምሳ በላይ ለሚሆኑት ሲዳማዎች ሞት እና ከመቶ በላይ ለሚሆኑት ደግሞ  መቁሰል ምክንያት መሆኑ ይታወሳል።

ከኣስር ኣመት በሃሏ የሃዋሳን ከተማ ኣስተዳደር እንከልሳለን ብለው በያዙት ቀጠሮ መሰረት የደኢዴን ማእከላዊ ኣመራር ኣባላት በቅርቡ በጻፉት ፍሬፍርስኪ የማወያያ ጽሁፍ  ለሲዳማ ህዝብ ያላቸውን ንቀት በይፋ  ኣሳይቷል።

ንቀተቸው  ያንገበገበው  የሲዳማ ህዝብ ላሰማው ህዝባዊ ንቅናቄ ምላሽ በማን ኣለብኝነት፤ በጉልበታቸው  ተማምነው ያሰፈሯቸው  የጸጥታ ሃይሎች በተለይ ሃዋሳ ከተማ  ውስጥ ሲዳማዎችን በኣደባባይ እየተደበደበ ነው።

የሲዳማ  ህዝብ ለመብቱ  እንድታገሉለት መርጦ የሾማቸው  ሹመኞች ሆዳቸውን ከመሙላት ባሻገር ለመረጣቸው ህዝብ መብት መከበር ምንም ማድረግ ኣልቻሉም እና ህዝቡ ስበደል ኣይተው እንዳለዩ በመለፍ ላይ ናቸው።

እስቲ የዛሬ ኣስር ኣመት በፊት የነበረው ሁኔታ ምን  ይመስል እንደት ነበር የሚቀጠለውን ጽሁፍ ያንብቡ።


Human Rights Abuses Escalate In Sidama, Ethiopia, Following A
Popular Demand For Regional Status.
March 14, 2006.
I. Facts About Sidama
1.1 The Sidama people who live in South Ethiopia have been demanding regional status
since Meles Zenawi’s regime illegally dissolved 5 independent regions in Southern
and South Western parts of the country to form an illegal South Ethiopian Regional
Administration in 1993.
1.2 Sidama has a population of over 5 million at present. The Sidama people have always
rejected a unilateral decision of Meles Zenawi to dissolve their regional status in
1993.
1.3 The Sidama land makes massive economic contribution to the central government. It
produces over 40% of washed coffee. Coffee earns over 60% of export revenues for
the country.
1.4 The capital town of Sidama, Awassa, (also called Hawassa in Sidamic) is located 275
kms south of Addis Ababa.
1.5 The unconstitutional decision of Meles Zenawi’s government to remove the Sidama
people from their land of Awassa in April 2002, led to a massive peaceful anti
government protest on May 24, 2002 in Loqqe, suburb of Awassa, in which 7000
people participated.
1.6 However, the government defence and police forces used live ammunition against
unarmed civilians killing over 69 people instantly and injuring over 1000. This
incidence led to arrest and torture of over 2000 people. Some people are still in jail.
1.7 Following this massacre hundreds of Sidama intellectuals and businessmen left the
country and most of them are currently living as refugees in Africa, Europe and other
continents.
1.8 The current regime in Ethiopia follows a deliberate policy of underdevelopment in
Sidama land. Since the political unrest in May 2002, NGO supported development
programs were dismantled and the government stopped carrying out its limited
development activities in the Sidama land altogether. The regime solely follows
undeclared state of emergency to manage political unrest in Sidama land since May
2002. Government offices have stopped functioning in Sidama land except the
defence and police forces.
1.9 Hundreds of children and the elderly are dying of hunger and malnutrition in many
parts of Sidama land following regular drought that could have been averted easily.
The international community has witnessed this fact in 2005.
II.The Current Crisis In Sidama For The Attention Of The International
Community.
2.1 Following a humiliating defeat in May 15, 2005 elections, which the regime reversed
by a massive post election vote rigging, Meles Zenawi met the representatives of the
Sidama people and agreed to restore the Sidama regional status after a referendum in
June 2006.
2.2 However, after he managed to crush the major opposition party and put its elected
leaders in jail, with limited or no opposition from the international community,
Meles Zenawi turned his back on the Sidama people.
2.3 After returning back from the meeting of “progressive governance” held in South
Africa, Meles Zenawi met the representatives of the Sidama community for the
second time in Awassa, Sidama land on 14th of February 2006. In a sharp, but a usual
U-turn from his earlier pledge, Meles Zenawi told the representatives of the Sidama
community this time that their demand for regional status would not be accepted.
2.4 This sparked a serious peaceful protest in Sidamaland. Thousands of students from
Awassa University and the Sidama people from all districts gathered in Awassa town
on March 10, 2006 and demanded the Sidama representatives of EPRDF, the ruling
party, to ensure that the status for Sidama which is guaranteed by the current
“constitution” of the country be granted as soon as possible.
2.5 This legal and peaceful demand of the people led to yet other massive human rights
abuses in Sidama. Since March 12, 2006 thousands of students from Awassa
University have been arrested and tortured in Awassa and others districts prisons
respectively. Thousands of military (Agazi Brigade), and police forces have been
deployed in all parts of the Sidamaland. Sidamaland is turned yet again into a
garrison.
2.6 Hundreds of Sidama civil servants and local Sidama NGO leaders are being removed
from their positions. Duka’le Lamiso, the managing director of the reorganized
Sidama Development Fund and a civil servant, Abera Doba are among the key
figures removed from their positions in the past two days. It is feared that these
people will also be jailed very soon.
III.The Appointment of Melese Marimo as an Ethiopian Ambassador to
South Africa
3.1 The unrecognised dictator of Africa, Meles Zenawi, appointed Melese Marimo the
EPRDF cadre in Sidama, as an Ethiopian ambassador to South Africa.
3.2 Melese Marimo was the former vice president of the illegal South Ethiopia Regional
Administration and the person who was one of the responsible peoples for the May
24, 2002 massacre of the Sidama people.
3.3 The Sidama people both at home and in Diaspora requested the current regime to
bring people like Melese Marimo who were responsible for the May 24, 2002
massacre to justice.
3.4 Amnesty International and other international and local human rights organisations
condemned the May 24, 2002 massacre in Awassa, Sidama.
3.5 However, the defiant Ethiopian Prime Minster promoted the well-known human
rights abuser as an Ambassador to South Africa, which is the model of democracy in
Africa.
IV. The International Community
4.1 We appeal to the international community to put pressure on the Ethiopian regime to
respect the basic human rights and stop massacre, arrest and torture whenever people
voice their legitimate rights.
4.2 In particular, we request the international community to put pressure on the
Ethiopian Prime Minster to stop massive imprisonment and torture of university
students, removal of Sidama civil servants from their legitimate jobs and condemned
the appointment of the well known human rights abuser as an Ambassador of the
country to South Africa.
The Sidama Communities at Home and in Diaspora.
March 14, 2006


 ምንጭ ፦http://www.sidamanational-liberation.org/documents/06facts.pdf

ማስታወሻ፦ ሌሎች መሰል ኣስተያዬቶች ያሏችሁ ግለሰቦች በዚህ ኢሜል: nomonanoto@gmail.com ጽሁፎ ቻችሁን ላኩልን እኛም ለኣንባቢዎች እንናደርሳለን።


Sidama - Religion and Beliefs
Introduction to Sidama Religion by Kifle WANSAMO
(culled from www.sidamaconcern.com/country/religion_and_beliefs.htm)


1.Introduction
2.Elements of faith in the Sidama religion
Belief in God
Belief in spirits
Belief in ancestors
3.The elements of Response in the Sidama Religion

Morality
Prayer & sacrifice
Sacrifice Offered to Magano  
Sacrifice Offered to the Ancestors  Offering Places
4.Conclusion
Endnotes
About the author
1. Introduction

This paper results from the research project carried out in 1996. Different notable personalities, community leaders and elders were interviewed in different parts of the region. Through this work the author, a Sidama himself, hopes that the article will help those who are interested in carrying out further study in the field in the future. The presentation below is restricted to the foundational elements of the Sidamas’ faith and the way the Sidamas live out this faith.



The Sidama nation is located in the north-east Africa, the now southern Ethiopia. Customarily, the Sidama people have been agriculturalist and semi-pastoralist. However, today, because of the high density of population and education, pastoral life is disappearing. The Sidama land is located between 4500 - 10000ft above sea level, and is marked by three climatic zones: lowlands, midlands, and highlands all supporting different activities and life styles. About 90% of the Sidamas live in rural areas with the substantial number being adherents of Sidama religion. There exist the followers of Christianity and Islam.

The social organization in Sidama is changing because of the education, political changes, contacts with different people from other regions and provinces and religions. This phenomenon also affects their cherished values, such as the rule of Halaale (truth), the government of the elders, dialogical and consensus based method of problem solving, and the fear (respect) of Magano (God).

2. Elements of Faith in the Sidama Religion

God, spirits, and ancestors are the foundational elements of faith for the Sidamas and are the constitutive part of their life.
2.1. Belief in God

God is named as Magano. The word magano is a compound word of ma and gano. Ma means "what" and gano has three meanings: as a noun it means conspiracy; when used as a verb it means I beat and I say or call or name. The approximate meaning of the compound word Magano can be "What can I call?" or "What can I say?" It indicates a deep experience of incomprehensible and incomparable God. It could be that the original person, unable to express the experience, resolved by calling Magano, "What can I say or call?"
Magano is addressed by the Sidamas as father. Other attributes for Magano are Kalaqa (the Creator), Kaaliqa (the Almighty) and Halalancho (the True One). There exists one, supreme, and universal Magano. He alone created all that a person could see around: humankind, nature, animals, birds, heaven, sun, moon, stars, and so on. The Sidamas make a clear distinction between God and their common ancestors saying that the ancestors were created by Magano. They say that "Magano had created and taken them away". Even during their sacrificial offering to their common ancestors Magano comes first before the ancestors' names.

An elaborate story of creation is not what is typical of Sidamas. Some clans attribute a mythical element and special power to their common ancestors, such as claiming a descent from heaven or emergence from earth. Yet every Sidama, if asked about the one responsible for creation, he/she automatically replies that Magano is the one who created all.

The Sidamas generally agree that in the beginning God used to live with people. As the result of sin they committed, Magano departed far away into the sky. Even then Magano is perceived as being actively involved in human life for which reason people continue reconciling themselves with God through sacrificial offerings until today. Magano is called daily in different situations. For instance, people say Maganu wolqai... (In God's power...), Magano anna’ya kaa’li’e (God, my father, help me), Maganu kaa’lona (may God help), and so forth.

The Sidamas possess no statues or images of Magano. For them Magano, though active in their life, cannot be represented. Generally Magano’s name is feared or highly respected and is not called for wrong intentions (e.g. cheating, telling lies, stealing). But one can observe some mischievous people or thieves swearing in Magano’s name to hide themselves from being discovered when they are suspected of such acts. Theft itself is a recent experience for the Sidama people.

There is no special day (like Sunday for Christians) for worshiping Magano. Apart from daily invocation of Magano’s name individuals such as the family heads make burnt offering for thanksgiving without any obligation or time set by a special authority. Communal burnt and sacrificial offerings take place at a particular moment and are dependent on the situations provoking them. More than offerings Magano demands good behavior because one often hears people saying "Do not do that for it displeases Magano" or "Magano will get angry". It is only the act of responding to Magano either in thanksgiving or asking forgiveness that people make animal offerings. The Sidamas see their Magano as a true loving father, the one who really cares for his children. They also experience Him as merciful and believe that He forgives their trespasses when they ask for forgiveness. Sprinkling of the blood of the sacrificial lamb is a sign of reconciliation with Magano and with each other.

2.2. Belief in Spirits

The Sidamas believe that there exist good and bad spirits. The good spirit, dancha Ayyaana, is identified as God's spirit, as the spirit coming from God. This manifests how Magano is perceived as being present in the people's daily life. Maganu Ayyaana, God’s Spirit, is presented as real and playing the role of giving life and blessings. Without Magano’s name, the spirit is not mentioned. One can certainly think that the hierarchical structure that exists within the community (i.e. ancestors - clan elders and religious leaders - parents - children) reflects the degree of the presence of Maganu Ayyaana. Consequently, a common ancestor is conceived as having Maganu Ayyaana abundantly and is made like divine. He lives with Magano and plays the role of a mediator between Magano and his people. Tribal elders and religious leaders are also filled with Maganu Ayyaana.
The bad spirit, Busha Ayyaana, is also seen as real and is hated by the religious leaders and community elders. They curse it whenever they offer sacrifice to Magano. They command saying, Busha ayaana gobbatee ba’i (Bad spirit, go away from the world!) and Magano busha ayaana gobbatee huni (God destroy the bad spirit from the world". The term sheexaane is a borrowed name from the Christians to refer to the bad spirit and is widely used. The Sidama People also say that evil spirits can cause diseases but cannot cure them. Consequently, some Sidamas fear the evil spirits. The individuals called qaallo are seen as the medium of the bad spirits through which communication with them is enhanced. In order to avoid getting sickness some people give animals (male sheep or goats). These spirits have recognition only in a family setting and not in the community setting. There is no community acceptance of them.

There also exists a female spirit, belonging to mothers-in-law, prayed and honored by women alone. They make food offering to it, sing and dance (always at night and under a tree). They call it woxa. It is a cult of fertility. At child birth, mothers-in-law say: ane woxa tirtohe - let my spirit help you for safe delivery. Sometimes when a dream occurs telling of eventual dangers such as war or plague or drought, women also make an offering (always food) and pray to this invisible mother-in-law spirit. However, they never associate it with being Magano but see it as another existing reality. They are aware that Magano alone is the Supreme. At the same time they believe that this mother-in-law spirit can protect them from the evil spirits and help them during their delivery. The food offered is expected to be eaten by the hyenas in the absence of women. The significance of this requires further investigation.

2.3. Belief in Ancestors

The Sidamas believe that the ancestors live with Magano, who granted them special power to act. They play a mediating role. However, daily practice of praying to Magano directly or daily calling of Magano’s name and spirit renders the ancestors’ involvement superfluous and reveals Magano’s direct involvement in the life of the people. During the time of supplication Magano’s name takes precedence and that of an ancestor comes next.
Since the Sidama people are organized according to clans, the common ancestor of each clan receives special respect and is paid homage in terms of appreciation that the people came into existence through his instrumentality. The Sidamas, being a patriarchal society, attribute power and authority to men alone. Equal respect and homage is not given to women ancestors. Common ancestors are regarded as very much blessed and filled with Magano's spirit, living in a state of divine. A lot of animals are periodically offered to them as a sacrifice.

Apart from acting as mediators, the common ancestors are seen as blessing and protecting the people and their ethical and religious values. They communicate with their people through dreams and warn them against human abuses of the defenseless, animals, and nature. Whoever dreams a dream, if the dream touches a situation implicating a clan or the nation, spiritual leaders call their councils and examine the dream carefully. If they conclude that the dream truly touches the reality existing within the clan or the nation, they give directions to the people on what to do. They also make an offering to Magano asking for forgiveness and protection from the eventual dangers. The following example illustrates these points.

During an interview with one elder called Ribbo talked about a recent dream dreamt by someone from Holloo clan. The dream was being carefully studied by the clan’s spiritual leaders called Gaana and Woma.[1] And the dream goes as follows: a horse, cow, and dog were pleading in Magano's presence. When Magano asked about their problems, they explained a miserable life they were living in. The horse complained that the areas reserved for the horses to graze (always along the rivers) were no more there. There were now fences everywhere that they could not move as before. The cow complained that the areas reserved for them were shared by the people and that they had no place to move and feed upon. The dog complained that people used to give them food but now no one cared for them. Instead, everyone chased them away and that they were dying of hunger. Magano asked the common ancestor of Holloo clan, who is called Aabo, about the issue. The ancestor replied to Magano that he was going to ask his representatives, the Gaana and Woma.

This dream is to be understood in the Sidama cultural context. It is already noted that the Sidamas used to be semi-pastoralist people. Because of the high population growth, all free places are being occupied. The lands left free for communal use have been divided and shared. People with small pieces of land are very much affected for they lack enough grazing places for their cattle. In the past, all the areas along the rivers were free for the horses to graze. Now it is becoming very narrow and the number of horses as well as cattle is decreasing. Certainly many Sidama people do not like dogs and chase them away. This dream does reflect the reality. The story shows how the Sidamas conceive the relationship between Magano and the common ancestors. The mediator role of the common ancestors is shown in the story. Moreover, even animals are shown receiving Magano’s concern.

The immediate dead parents also receive respect and veneration. A grand-father is also remembered. A person offers a bull for his dead father and to a certain degree he also remembers his dead mother. They are seen as being part of the family still living. They play a role of mediating, blessing, and protecting the family from misfortunes.

Thus far we have seen the elements of faith in Sidama Religion, we now proceed to the faith responses which the Sidamas make in their lives.

3. The Elements of Response in the Sidama Religion

Morality, prayer and sacrifice reflect the faith of the Sidama people. And this section explains what these elements are.
3.1. Morality

Morality and religion are identified in the Sidama culture so much so that outsiders may not recognize the existence of monotheistic religion in it. Consequently, they would easily regard the Sidamas as animists.[2] Many of the missionaries have spoken and some have even written about the people as animists and today some still hold this idea with conviction. However, for a thorough observer and sensitive person, the opposite is true. For Sidamas, morality holds a holistic approach: relationship among individuals, with God, and vis-a-vis creation (land, animals, plants, trees, ...). The dictums, Gafo ikkanno and Maganu di-baxxanno (God does not like it), are the keys that regulate individual’s attitude towards the "other".
At all times a Sidama person would never fail to mention God's name. For example, Magano anna'ya ati afootto; Hai Magano anna'ya; Maganu lao; Maganu kaa'lo,... [in a respective order: God, my Father, You know it all; O God, my Father; May God see or witness; May God help,...].

One cannot find a commandment taught and imposed on the people saying that there is only one Magano to worship and everyone must worship Him. One does not receive or learn the values and practices of Sidama through formal teaching, but learns the ways of behaving and even beliefs and practices from elders through hearing comments about acts, following the elders, and also being reprimanded or physically punished if one acted in an unacceptable way. All passed through customary practices. In other words, the social structures contribute to the young ones to grow in conformity to the cultural values. Seeing, listening to, and following mark children's behavior. As they grow up they, consciously or unconsciously, assimilate and interiorize all the cultural values and practices. Grand-parents and mothers play a role in helping their children to grow in the socially accepted ways. Elder brothers and sisters also help their younger ones.

Elders are generally respected. There has existed a harmonious and supportive relationship between parents and children or the older generation and the younger one. However, today young people, due to different factors such as education, political ideologies, new fundamentalist churches and so forth are diluting the force of the relationship which previously existed between the two generations.

Killing a Sidama person by a Sidama is prohibited. Unfortunately, this value  is changing because of the political motivations imposed from outside. For instance, if some people are seen as a threat to Ethiopian government, those who promote the interest of the government would seek to eliminate them.

Adultery and fornication have been also strictly forbidden. Virginity for a girl has been a value honored very much until today. It is considered a very shameful thing for the parents if their daughter is discovered to have lost her virginity. A virgin girl is considered as equal to a man. During marriage people talk of making a girl a woman as if she was never a woman. But if she is not a virgin, she loses her respect and pride, and under customarily setting, she often becomes a second wife and remains under the kindness of her husband. No dowry will be paid for the family. Today, however, because of education there is more relaxation and contact between boys and girls. The educated group does not put emphasis on virginity as a necessary condition for paying dowry and for marriage. As for adultery, Sidama people have lived according to family, sub-clan, and clan level. Those who belonged to one clan regarded themselves as brothers and sisters, and sleeping with the wife of one’s brother was unacceptable and a taboo.

Truth is highly regarded. The expression Halaale gorsitooti [don't abuse or diminish truth] carries with it a deep respect for truth. Maybe this is because truth is also associated with Magano. The people believe that a person who takes offence against truth will certainly suffer the consequence. This is manifested in the expression, Halaalu annasi di-hawao. The exact translation of the expression into English is difficult, but it implies that truth itself will take revenge against the offender and bring justice to the offended. It also means that the one who walks in the truth will win. This is a principal reason for respecting the property of others and refraining oneself from speaking false things. There exist, however, some dishonest people and thieves, who falter this value within the Sidama people.

The consecrated people practice three days fasting before the new year feast, Fichee. Customarily the Sidama people do not practice of fasting, and even the fasting of the consecrated people could be because of their being too busy reconciling and solving problems in the community before the new year.

A holy man is a man who avoids bad words and acts in a good (acceptable) way. He is respected and considered as being blessed and loved by Magano. Maganu maassi'no manchoti, Maganu battino manchoti, Maganu battino bettoti, Maganu maassi'no bettoti are the common expressions. The Sidamas consider Magano as fully involved in people's daily life. With this and other reasons which I have directly or indirectly mentioned, I conclude that for the Sidamas morality and religion are one. Fr. Markos Beyene, a Sidama priest, rightly observed and wrote in his unpublished article - 'A Christian Approach to Traditional Religion in Sidama Area"' - saying that 'the Sidama people see the direct action of God in creation more than the natural laws. Everything comes from God...the fulfillment and success in life is achieved only by the will of God (...). They believe that if people misbehave God goes away from them' [p.8].

Meaningful life is understood as doing good things and passing life (procreating). Every young man is expected to get married and beget children. This is very much valued.

Generally elders, the cimeeyye, try to live an exemplary life. Wherever hatred or quarreling exist the elders bring reconciliation. They solve problems; they take care of social affairs, look after the needs of the widows and the weak, and maintain justice and peace. Misbehaving results in disturbing a harmonious relationship that exists between God and the people, among the people themselves, and among them and their ancestors.

Apart from the consecrated ones (e.g., Ga'ro and Qqaddo)[3] one has to be at least 50 years old and a circumcised in order to assume the position of a community elders.[4] The good life a person lives determines his position or importance. One can be the eldest in the community but if his way of living is not appreciated he cannot play a role of an elder (cimeessa), who is a very much feared and respected. This is explained in the expression, "chimeesu chilo itisano" [The elder can make a person eat faeces].

Many other practices such as hospitality, respect to foreigners, ceremonies during birth, marriage, funerals, and festivals that exist in the Sidama culture are left for future study.

3.2. Prayer and Sacrifice

People pray to Magano individually or communally. Individual prayers can be done with or without sacrificial offerings. But communal prayers are always accompanied by sacrifices. During communal offerings the consecrated people act as the celebrants. If it is at the sub-clan level, unless there exists a consecrated person, a notable elder leads the community into prayer.
The Sidamas follow twenty seven important "moments", which are called ayyaana, in a month. They are followed through the position of the stars. Only some particular men called the ayyaanto (astrologists) know how to follow the stars and discover the types of ayyaana. Each ayana is used for a special function: ayyaana for marriage, for feast, for war, for success, and so forth. The ayyaana for offering sacrifice to Magano are either adula or gutcha. The ayyaanto and the consecrated people whose duty is to look after the issues of their people, direct most of their activities according to the ayyaana. Individuals consult these people to know, for example, when weddings should take place.

Two types of sacrifices exist within the Sidama religion: one is offered to Magano and the other is to the ancestors.

3.2.1. Sacrifice Offered to Magano

Burnt offering: As thanksgiving and asking for blessing the Sidamas offer this sacrifice to Magano. It is offered individually (e.g., a family head) and communally (e.g., at the sub-clan or clan level).
A male animal, a lamb or a bull, is killed and burnt. Before slaughtering, the person in charge starts with a prayer of blessing and mentions reasons for such gathering and offerings. For example, he mentions the good things (blessings) Magano has done for his country, his nation, and his clan. Then the animal is killed. The celebrant, while burning the animal, calls Magano’s name and says (the content is dependent on the intention):

Magano, itoommo, agoommo, duwoommo. Tini xinino, tini shilqqo, atera iilitohe ... Gobba'ya gowi, keere assi, ge'issi, gada'ya geedo'ya seeki, gobbate, saadate kaaya kaayoma qqoli. [God, I have eaten, I have drunk, I am satisfied. Let this burnt offering reach you.... Unite my country, bring peace and stability, bless my generation and the coming generation, and domestic animals].

At the family level, the family-head offers the sacrifice to thank Magano for all the blessings (e.g., children, wealth, good fortunes) he has received from Him. While burning the animal he says, "My Father, take this. Let it reach you. It is for you, and take it." He also prays for more blessings. Some individuals who prayed during their suffering, such as barrenness and serious sickness, offer the burnt offering sacrifice to Magano when their prayer is answered. These people had promised Magano an animal if He would respond to their prayers, if He would come to their help. Women and young men bring their promises to the spiritual leaders who would offer on their behalf.

Blood offering: This is done communally for the purpose of purification, reconciliation and protection from bad things such as enemies, drought, and plague. If something which is considered as grave offense against human beings, and indirectly against Magano, within a sub-clan or a clan by an individual or the individuals, the community offers this type of sacrifice. When those with the gift of foreseeing tell the eminent danger (e.g., war, plague, drought) or when a dream revealing the eminent danger occurs, the consecrated people organize the sacrifice. If the people are suffering because of plague or drought, the consecrated people make supplication through blood sacrifice.

The ritual of this type takes place in the following ways:

The consecrated people choose and announce the day of the sacrifice, the ayyaana, and the place where the sacrifice will take place. On the day of the sacrifice people gather together. The sacrificial animal is prepared. A consecrated person presides over the activity. The presider opens the ceremony by welcoming people and telling them the reason of the gathering. After this, everyone with grudges and quarrels comes foreword and presents his cases. They are listened to and the matters are solved. In other words, people are reconciled with one another. A prayer for the forgiveness of the sins of the people is offered to Magano. The presider prays concerning the needs of the community and slaughters the animal. The blood of the animal is collected and sprinkled to the sky, to the earth, and onto the people as the sign of reconciliation. While sprinkling the blood with a branch of a particular tree, the presider addresses to God and says:

Gatisi, xummisi, gobba gatis, Holloo, Hawela, Faqsa, Alata, Sawola Qwena gatis ... [Save us, purify us, save...(here he mentions each clan of the nation by name).]

With this act the people are reconciled with Magano and with the earth, which is regarded as mother, and with themselves. Thus, they are purified from their guilt. They also make their supplication to Magano. Then a small piece of meat is taken before removing the skin. The presider takes and raises the meat, tastes it, and passes it to the elders. After this the meat is cut, roasted and cooked, and everyone present in the gathering consumes it. Finally, the future issues of the community are discussed. The presider concludes and the people go to their home.

3.2.2. Sacrifice Offered to the Ancestors

The Sidama people show their gratitude to their ancestors through sacrificial offerings. At the communal, clan level, the offering is done to the common ancestors. At the family level, the husband fattens a bull and offers it for his father.
Bulls are slaughtered in several numbers periodically as a sacrifice of thanksgiving for the blessings received from the common ancestors and for their continuous presence among the people. At the same occasion, people also ask for their continuous blessings and presence. For instance, the people of Holloo clan offer their sacrifice to their common ancestor after every seven years.

During an interview with an eighty-eight years old elder from the Holloo clan concerning the sacrifice, he says that their common ancestor does not demand that the people must bring animals for sacrifice. But individuals who possess animals want to keep a bull among their cattle in gratitude for the blessings they have received from their common ancestor. Moreover, out of the sacrifice the ancestor wants the poor in the society to feast on meat, for they rarely get it. So it is a joyful moment for the poor to gather together with others and enjoy meat to the full. Both the poor and the rich alike celebrate together, and carry the remains back to their homes.

When the bulls are killed the blood is poured on the tomb of the ancestor. Those who received favours (e.g., children) they had asked from Magano or the ancestor also bring whatever they had promised . The lambs brought on this account are killed and burnt as a thanksgiving offering to Magano, and to the ancestor if he was asked to mediate. His name is mentioned after Magano’s name.

Each individual also remembers his immediate parents, specially his father. He fattens a bull and offers it at the time he wants. At different moments he prepares honey and milk and pours them on his father's tomb and then on his mother's tomb. The grand-parents are also remembered. While offering the sacrifice the person who offers says:

gedeno'ya seeki, geedo'ya seeki, galte'ya seeki, ooso'ya seeki. Ooso'yarana saada'yara gosa'yarano kaaya abbi [Make straight my future, my wife, my children, my cattle. Bring blessings to my children, cattle and to my nation].

However, if an individual is poor, he is not obliged to do so. Responding to the question why an individual has to make an offering to his parents, an elder, Gujo No’ora, said that when a sacrificial offering is done here on earth a simultaneous gathering and celebration of the people living with Magano in heaven takes place. When one is remembered by his son, all his friends come to celebrate together. But if one is forgotten by his own, he will feel that he is like an abandoned beggar. So he communicates through a dream to his son. It is believed that if the son who possesses wealth refuses to respond to the dream, he will fall sick until he reconciles himself with his dead father. As we observe, the concern is more on a father than a mother.

An offence a father commits against somebody is perceived to affect not only himself but his children as well. If he dies without solving the problem, the case has to be solved before or after his burial by his relatives. This signifies that the familial and affective relationship continues between the living and the physically dead. The relatives organize reconciliation to heal the wound caused by their late member lest their children suffer the consequences. The dead parents are also beneficiaries of this reconciliation, for they too are perceived getting peace.

As we have already mentioned above, there are some people who offer sacrifice to the bad spirits because they fear getting sick.  This is done not to honour or venerate these spirits; they are hated, but because the people believe in their existence, they would like to appease them from causing
harm.  This is a family affair that does not involve the whole community.

3.3.3. Offering Places

Concerning the sacrifices offered to Magano on communal level, no fixed place is found. There exists neither a house nor a tent, not even an altar. All depends on the dreams specifying the place or on the indication of those who possess the gift of prophesying or on consensus. On the individual level, it is done at home not inside but outside the house of the one offering the sacrifice.
As for the ancestors, the sacrifice is offered where their tombs are found. There exist in different places the shrines called hara but only houses, without statues or images, where the elders and others come to pray. The elders also conduct their meetings there. Sometimes burnt offering to Magano at the sub-clan level takes place at these shrines.

Conclusion

The Sidamas are truly Monotheist and they do not see Magano as a tribal or exclusive entity. God does speak to people through their cultures and situations. To this communication or revelation each individual or group responds according to its understanding of God and culture.
God has been speaking to the Sidama people in their culture, revealing through dreams, prophets, and individuals' deep experience of the sacred. What I consider important is that be it a dream or a prophecy, but if it deals with avoiding evil, promoting human life, and bringing people closer to God it is good and a revelation. The Sidama  religion is an example of God's universal salvific act. God truly acts and Christianity is not the only way for salvation. An honest dialogue and true respect to other religions are important not only for collaboration in promoting human life and to live in harmony with others, but also to discover more the mystery of God's work to bring humankind into Himself.

Endnotes

[1] These people are the consecrated ones.  They offer sacrifices on behalf of their clans.  Each one has his own council of elders (all men).  They do not take any decision without the knowledge of their councils.  In their councils' meeting they act as moderators.  Gaana and Woma announce and execute the decisions of their respective council.  They are very much respected and their words are taken seriously by their people.  They live separately and each one has his own council.  Yet they work harmoniously  in such a way that whatever decision one takes, the other one does not oppose or act against it.  There exists constant communication between them.
[2] Animism denotes the belief in many spiritual beings who are autonomous in their dealings with human beings.  It is characterized by its "particularism, a quality opposite to the universalism of the ‘great religions’, which conceive man as subject to global powers and personal destiny."  Individual divinity is attached to a particular place and person or resident in a particular creature.  "If animistic spirits anywhere exercise authority, they do so in particularistic, even egoistic fashion, sanctioning men for ritual neglect or breaking taboos, not for acts of moral neglect or secular offence.  Animistic religion do not readily coalesce with systems of political authority and probably do not favour their development."  See Encyclopaedia Britannica, Macropaedia, Vol. I (Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1977), under "animism", pp. 923-4.  If Christianity is not associated with animism, one wanders why the Sidama religion is termed animistic.  Both religions venerate ancestors (e.g. Catholic and Orthodox Christians venerate the saints as the Sidamas venerate their ancestors).  The ancestors or the saints possess no autonomous power to practice over human beings unless in relation to God.  The only difference would be that the Sidamas take their ancestral veneration as a duty.  The ancestors are not seen as egoistic.  They are concerned with the well being of people.  For instance, the common ancestor of Holloo clan, Aabbo, shows concern not only to his clan but also to the whole nation and to others who ask for his help.  The Sidamas do not worship trees or stones but God alone.

[3] Ga'ro (Moote) plays the following roles: he organizes communal sacrifices if war or drought or plague occurs, commands the army during war, reconciles if two clans are at war or tension, takes decisions on issues concerning the whole clan, solves juridical problems which cannot be solved in sub-clan level, and announces the date of the new year feast, Fitchee, and makes prayer.  Qqaddo is a collective name for Woma, Gaana, Gaadala, and Qqaarricha.  Their roles are more or less the same but with some particularity to each one.  Two of the Sidama clans do not have Woma.  The Holloo clan has created a complicated organization.  It has both Ga'ro and Qqaddo.  Except Woma the rest of the Qqaddo are not found in any other clans except in the Holloo.  Ga'ro and Qqaddo are the consecrated people who take care of the life of the whole Sidama people.  Each of them have their own council of elders.  These people are deeply religious as the elders too are notoriously religious.

[4] Elder women (Qqarubba) are respected, too.  But they do not practice authority over men.  In the Sidama culture men do not associate with women.  Consequently, women also have their own organization.  The elder women practice authority over them.  Women can change men's decision if it violates peace and harmony in the society.  The eldest woman (Qqaro) can impose a punishment if a husband abuses his wife.  The punishment cannot be reversed unless he fulfils the imposed obligation by the Qqaro.

The Author  is a Sidama specialising in Theology and Philosophy.

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