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Tuesday, November 30, 2010

Hawassa City moved to 11th place with its first win (1-0) of the season with a 1-0 victory over Trans Ethiopia in Yirgalem, and Sebeta City defeated EEPCO 1-0 thanks to Biniam Assefa’s goal.

In other matches, Ethiopian Coffee is back on top of the Ethiopian Premier League with a 5-3 victory over previously undefeated Defence Force here today at the Abebe Bikila Stadium.

The Coffee vs Defence battle for first place produced 8 goals; with 2 of them were clear gifts by Defence goalie, who was finally replaced.

The victory lifted Ethiopian Coffee to the top of the league with 14 pts from 6 matches with Defence Force & Ethiopian Banks trailing with 12 points each. However, Defence still has one game in hand.

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Monday, November 29, 2010

Over 40 marketing and manufacturing centres are being constructed at a cost of 41 million Br for those engaged in micro and small-scale enterprises (MSEs) in Hawassa Town, according to the town administration. “Construction of 14 of the centres have been completed and efforts are underway to complete the remaining ones in the current Ethiopian year,” said Ashagre Uga, development planning, monitoring, and evaluation process owner of the administration. Upon going fully operational, the centres whose construction cost was covered by the government, would benefit over 3,000 people, he said.

Saturday, November 27, 2010

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Friday, November 26, 2010

Hawassa , November 26, 2010 (Addis Ababa) - President Girma Woldegiorgis said the government would continue its support toward the speedy of development of urban areas.

President Girma made the statement at an event organized to celebrate both Town's Day and the gold jubilee anniversary of Hawasa Town held here on Friday.

Residents of urban areas have been enjoying the benefits of development according to a plan designed by the government.

He said it the town residents have been benefiting from urban development activities.
President Girma said the government would further strengthen urban development activities in the year's ahead.

Hawassa Town Mayor, Shibiku Maganena and South Ethiopia Peoples State Administration Chief Shiferaw Shigute had congratulated the residents of the town.

Urban Development and Construction Minister, Mekuria Haile said on his part that his ministry has been working hard to speed up the development of urban areas.

The gold jubilee of Hawassa Town will be celebrated for four days.

The days were celebrated under the theme" Speedy Urban and National Development"
Town's Day and the 50th anniversary of Hawassa Town were celebrated in the presence of dozesn of residents and invited guest.

Although small in numbers, the African Nation of the Sidamas features some of the most perspicacious and sagacious intellectuals of the Black Continent. Either close to the authentic source of Wisdom, the Old Sidama Land that currently bears evidence to the barbaric Abyssinian cruelty, or dispersed in the four corners of the planet, among their Diaspora, Sidama Intellectuals through books, websites, articles, speeches and conferences remind to all of us that in the southernmost confines of the Abyssinian Hell, we can still find a Shelter of Humanity and Noblesse. The landlocked nation, confined among the Oromos, Kenya and Sudan, outnumbers many European countries in terms of population.

The entire world will be a richer and fairer place, if the Sidamas have their own representative in the African Union and the United Nations. To rediscover the most original noblesse of Africa and the Sidama world that livs among us in the West, we should go through the excellent paper of the illustrious Sidama intellectual, Mr. Seyoum Hameso, and encounter the Sidama Diaspora and their peaceful national and cultural endeavours. We reproduce here Mr. Hameso’s paper integrally. 

Diaspora identity formation and forced flight of Sidamas
1. Introduction

The Sidama diaspora refers to people of Sidama descent who live outside Sidama-Ethiopia. The majority of Sidama diaspora members have been forced to leave their homeland due to political repression with few exceptions who migrated in search of better opportunities. Yet nearly all of them face the condition of exile or what Edward Said calls "being somebody away from the place that he was born and belonged to" (Said 2001). In the words of Greg Gow, the diaspora experience can be dystopic: "loss, anguish, divided loyalties and the longing for cohesion and community feature in the lives of displaced people. In the host country, experiences of discrimination, exclusion and invisibility negatively constitute diaspora consciousness" (Gow 2004:304).

The essay explores the experiences of the Sidama diaspora based on personal experience, observation and discussion with Sidamas. It compares and constrasts the cultures of exile of other comparative diaspora groups such as the Oromos, Somalis, Palestinians and Iranians. 

The essay starts by describing the contested territories of history and identity, nation and homeland. It then examines the flight and forced migration of Sidamas followed by analysis of the creation of the Sidama diaspora, their settlements, and their cultural projects. It finally concludes with findings that relate to broader themes and comparative cultures of exile. Since no study has been done on Sidama diaspora, this is an original attempt, and as such generalizations and conclusions are tentative and open to further research. 

2. Who are Sidamas?

The Sidamaland is situated in north-eastern Africa (Ethiopia) where there is deep contest and conflict over identity, including the population size. The Sidama population is estimated to be over 5 million; and they are one of the major Kushitic speaking people in Ethiopia, a country of over 70 million. The Sidama people believe to belong to Sidama country, or the Sidamaland. 

The Sidama are a persecuted ethno-national group; their condition resembles that of the Oromos in Ethiopia who "are perhaps the most recent, least known and most disadvantaged immigrant group." Gow (2004:302). The Sidama have all the necessary components of a nation: a land, a unique culture, language, history, and a people with common descent. In this sense, they are a nation and a people without state. Like Palestinians, Sidamas lacked a political roof of their own or autonomous political decision making and face discrimination and violation of human rights.

The Sidama nation, its people including its diaspora, its history and culture are scarcely known. Sidama studies were virtually non-existent even for academic purposes for two reasons. First, the introduction of education and the emergence of enlightened nationalists were late in comparison to other regions in Ethiopia. Secondly, the Ethiopian historiography had no room for the development of non-Abyssinian (mainly Amhara and Tigrean) cultures. Worse still, it had circumvented and undermined their knowledge production by isolating the Sidama from the world for more than a century, although recently its children scattered around the world are bringing their experiences to bear and their presence felt.

National identity is hotly contested in Ethiopia resulting in competing claims, counter-claims and persistent struggle. The official Ethiopianist discourse projects the authenticity and historicity of Ethiopian nation to three thousand years. The myth of descent from the so-called Solomonic dynasty is frequently mentioned to build an image of national continuity and a unique civilisation (Zewde 2002).

On the other hand, Sidama and Oromo scholars (e.g. Holcomb and Ibssa 1990, Hameso and Hassen 2006) draw distinction between modern Ethiopia and the historic Abyssinia (Amharas and Tigreans). The Sidamaland had fallen under the formerly Abyssinian and later Ethiopian rule since 1893. This came about after the war of conquest undertaken by Emperor Menelik II of Shawa, Central Ethiopia. The system that emerged was based on "physical appropriation of land and the pursuit of cultural hegemony" (Gow 2004:303) of Orthodox Christian kingdom of Abyssinia. The same system resulted in the decimation and forced displacement of millions of Oromos, Sidamas and others who resisted the conquest. 

The subsequent nation-building project was pursued through the policy of assimilation and homogenization, mainly into Amhara culture. Successive attempts to homogenise the Ethiopian nation along Amharic culture and language meant that languages such as the Sdiama were relegated or suppressed alongside the political importance of the peoples speaking them. The social and political subordination of Sidama people caused their economic dispossession and inevitable resistance. Resistance to apartheid style discriminatory political framework took the form of national liberation struggles and the formation of several liberation fronts in different parts of Ethiopia including Eritrea, Tigray, Afar, Oromo, Sidama and Ogaden who waged wars with centrist and unitarist regimes in Addis Ababa. The prevalence of domination and repression created a multitude of diasporas.

3. The Forced Flight of Sidamas

Large scale forced displacement in sizeable numbers in manners comparable to Palestinians, Somalis or even Oromos is not the case for Sidamas. Yet, the history of conquest, subjugation, violation of human rights and cultural suppression meant that conflicts and liberation struggles led to forced displacement of Sidamas from their homeland. 

The majority of Sidamas who are involved in trans-national flight constitute of refugees and asylum seekers, followed by increasing number of voluntary migrants to the West under voluntary resettlement schemes such as the U.S. Lottery DV programs. Labour migration is unheard of from Sidama until recent times. Indeed, unlike Somali communities who are reported to have "a strong culture of migration" (Horst 2006:1), trans-national border crossing and labour migration of Sidamas have been limited. Yet, due to a combination of reasons including rights violation and economic depravation, Sidamas are undertaking costly flights to different destinations.

Historically, the first wave of migration from Sidama took place in 1977 following the clampdown of political dissidents by the military Derg which took power in 1974 and led by col. Mengistu Hailemariam. The destination was Somalia and the number of involved persons is estimated to be over ten thousand comprising, mainly of peasants with a handful of educated persons as leaders. The group formed the Sidama Liberation Movement (SLM). After receiving military training in Somalia, many of them had returned to Sidama as freedom fighters conducting armed struggle in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Led from Somalia, the struggle was short-lived and came to end in 1982. The Barre regime supported the SLM and later the refugees by offering them training, equipment and land. Initially, the movement laid the basis for written Sidama language literacy in the refugee camps. Moreover, pamphlets and Sidama language radio broadcast propaganda work started in the early 1980s followed by the creation of popular music.

The second wave of Sidama refugees, took place after the change of regime in Ethiopia in 1991. This round of flight was precipitated by local and regional factors. Locally, cautious optimism prevailed among Sidamas who believed that the regime led by the Tigrean Peoples Liberation Front (the TPLF, the key rebel movement in the overthrow of the Derg regime) will lead to the resolution of their predicament; but this was not meant to be and many fled TPLF-instigated persecution later. On the regional level, the fall of the Siad Barre regime in Somalia in 1990 was followed by turmoil and civil war and the disintegration of the Somalian state. Then hundreds of Sidamas returned to Ethiopia in 1991 when the SLM joined the newly formed Transitional Government. Others, who integrated into Somali society and were given farmlands, remained in Somalia while others fled to Kenya’s refugee camps such as Kakuma. For Sidama refugees in such refugee camps, resettlement in the safe third country had become the most desired option. Through the offices of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Kenya, the governments of Norway, USA, Canada and Australia received many refugees for resettlement. 

While Sudan has been the main route or destination of Ethiopian refugees, very few Sidama refugees or migrants traveled to or through Sudan. Even those who did in the late 1970s traveled back to Kenya and eventually resettled in the U.S. The most common route of Sidama refugee flow has been south of the border (either into Kenya or Somalia) rather than the north (either Sudan or Egypt – most refugees from Ethiopia who did go north have been and are Ethiopians from the North and West). 

In the UK, there were a handful of Sidamas in the 1980s but this changed in the 1990s. Following the second wave of refugee flows, stated above, a new breed of people arrived in the UK mostly through regular channels of migration. In the U.S. and Canada, the Sidama diaspora consist of a combination of former refugees from Somalia and voluntary migrants through the Green Card Lottery or Diversity Immigrant Visa Programme followed by family reunions and sponsorship. In Italy, there are fewer than 100 Sidama migrants, mostly women who took up religious path to migration (they migrated through Catholic Church and seminary training but decided to remain there). Some applied for asylum while others remained irregular and engaged in low-skill, low-paid jobs. Yet most are supportive of their relatives in Sidama. Other European countries in which Sidamas reside include Germany, Norway, and Ireland.

Despite the lack of structured study into the varied background of Sidama diaspora, anecdotal evidence and personal observation show that most refugees faced similar predicament at one time or another: uprooting, and deprivation. According to Mekuria Bulcha (2006:40), "uprooting is more than a physical absence from home. It is a predicament which concerns the inner balance of the individual. In other words, it involves an emotional crisis caused by the individual’s separation from his/her natural physical and social environment and a psychological problem of adjusting to the new one." In addition, forced migrants in particular face the problem of discontinuity which constitutes multiple disruptions of life-goals including marriage, family life, careers and education.

4. The Development of Written Narratives

Most Sidama refugees descend from rural communities where social relations are closely knit and life is based on strong sense of solidarity and interdependence. These values and worldviews accompany them to the destinations that host them. 

A. Literacy and communication among the diaspora

In oral cultures such as that of Sidama, an important medium of communication is the word of mouth. It also means that oral and visual communication methods are more popular among people with limited literacy and access to print media. For those who have the skills to use modern information technology, internet is the most important source of information of news and developments about the homeland. Most of the people this writer has contact with, deploy Internet to search for information or they rely on electronic communication. Telephony is the other major medium communication. It is effective means of trans-national network building and maintaining links with relatives and friends in the homeland.

The Sidama language was developed in written form in 1991, following the decision by the Transitional Government which consisted of Oromo and Sidama political leaders who were later forced out of government in 1992. The role of individuals such as Mr Ibsa Gutama who was the then Minister of Education and a member of the Oromo Liberation Front was vital in this decision. The written Sidama uses Latin alphabet in contrast to Giiz or Ethiopic scripts used for Amharic and other Semitic languages. 

B. Expression of longing through music and scholarship

The development of Sidama music outside Sidama had started with refugees in Somalia. The most famous singer who later returned to Sidama in 1991 was Adunya Dumo. Much of his music is informed by exile experience in Somalia in the 19809s and it is filled with expressions of loneliness, uncertainty, uprootedness, nostalgia and desire to return to the homeland. In his music, he refers to Sidamaland as a motherland, mother, innocent, and love. A significant degree of idealisation of homeland is evident in his songs. Upon his return, Adunya was received with great enthusiasm and as a hero. When relations with the Ethiopian regime and the political movement he was associated soured, Adunya encountered conflict with the political and social environment. He then retreated to life of alcohol abuse and unemployment. Adunya’s story is similar to the Palestinian youth who returned to occupied homeland and felt disillusioned though in recent times some countries such as the UK have restricted the latter. 

In the Sidama diaspora, some people listen to Adunya’s music to express their longing for homeland. The imported music audios, and video cassettes are played on social events such as marriage ceremonies and political rallies. Some people buy foods items or import prepared food from home. There are also many Sidamas with no immediate desire to return yet still keep the collective memory by producing scholarly works on Sidama, writing about its history and informing the wider world about the Sidama people. Indeed, Sidama diaspora intellectuals participate in various community projects including the production of knowledge through literature. In co-operation with like-minded other diaspora scholars, the Sidama scholars write articles, participate in international conferences and events. They conduct nationalist discourse by word of mouth and by written texts (i.e. books, essays, newsletters and internet discussion groups). Websites such as the Sidama Online (www.sidama.org) and the Sidama Concern (www.sidamaconcern.com) are the products of such initiatives. The aims of The Sidama Concern, for example, are:

To collate, analyse and disseminate information of relevance to the Sidama of North East Africa;

To serve as a means of communication between Sidamas and the outside world in manners that can be progressively useful to Sidama people at home and in diaspora;

To promote dialogue on the causes of justice, peace, democracy and development; and,

To create awareness about freedom of expression and human rights issues in this part of Africa.

In this regard, Edward Said is right when he wrote: "Much of exile’s life is taken up with compensating for disorienting loss by creating a new world to rule. It is not surprising that so many exiles seem to be novelists, chess players, political activists and intellectuals" (Said 2000:181).

C. Political mobilisation

Sidama forced migrants recall human rights violations in the form of political persecution, war, forced resettlement and villagization. In the 1970s and 1980s, they faced brutal repression by Ethiopian military regime with the support of the former Soviet Union. Since 1991, they have faced equally brutal suppression by the Tigrayan-dominated Ethiopia government which is supported by financial backing from the Western countries. The ongoing political problems forced many a diaspora to participate in politics, by leading and guiding as well as mobilizing local and international support for the Sidama cause both in the diaspora and in Sidama. 

The significant event that caused widespread uproar was the Looqe massacre of 24 May 2002. The massacre of about 100 Sidama civilians by Ethiopian government forces caused indignation not only among the Sidamas but also among the international community. The most active members of the Sidama diaspora collected signatures, contacted the UK government and canvassed for support from UK national and European Union parliamentarians. Repression and rights violations still continue even after the May 2005 elections of Ethiopia.

While such tragedies bring people together, the Sidama diaspora, like other diasporas, entertain diverse political outlooks. This resulted in different loyalties and minor discrepancies in approaches. Competition and political rivalry among groups and along regional lines have negatively impacted on the cause, not least among members of the diaspora communities. Yet all groups and supporters believe in the shared problem of suppression and violation of human rights by Ethiopian regimes. 

D. Gender, social networks and community formations

Most Sidama women migrate to join their husbands. The customary Sidama tradition offers certain rights including the control of family subsistence, especially diary products. Women used to be represented in the traditional council of wise people (womu songo). However, like other societies, Sidama too is patriarchal society and women do not inherit land which is owned by the Ethiopian state anyway. 

In the diaspora, men are often the breadwinners of families. It is not very common to have single parent families in Sidama, there are a few single parent families among Sidama diaspora. Family breakdown is rare, but it exists. 

There are some harmful practices including female circumcision which takes place when a woman marries a man. The health hazards associated with such a practice is increasingly publicized and many an educated people have or are abandoning the practice.

In a communal society like that of the Sidama, the social networks including relations and friends support community members. Individual remittances and community activities directed at improving the lives of kin and kith in the homeland are common. This is despite the fact that many diaspora members are preoccupied with basic daily living while others managed to enable themselves to create knowledge about Sidamaland and give meaning to their own situation. 

The formation and running of community organizations has not been quite successful as political rivalries and conflicts permeate social and community life. People who know each other, but divided along political lines find it less controversial and the least risky to pursue religious path than political causes. Thus churches attract more followers than political demonstrations.

5. Integration and Myth of Return

One of the achievements of the Derg regime in the late 1970s and early 1980s has been the expansion of mass literacy programs to large sections of Ethiopia. The literacy campaign has impact on peoples of the periphery of Ethiopian politics, mainly in the rural areas. Yet such basic literacy is no feat for literacy and numeracy levels required in the West for well meaning integration in societies that host these people. As the result they remain unemployed and dependent on social welfare benefits. Some adults, especially women who lacked formal schooling, engage in irregular labor market often at low wages sometimes below minimum wages. English is their second or the third language.

Sidama diasporas in London and other parts of the world exhibit different levels of integration to host societies. Many, who came to UK with higher education degrees, have proceeded to do post-graduate studies to bolster their life chances. It is also the case that most of the migrants to UK are either educated and leaders or members of Sidama political movements; most arrive as single men and joined by their families later. Many took part in paid and unpaid work. Still there are many who are not in gainful employment.

Young generations pass through the mainstream education system, and some aspire for a university education. But older generations find integration difficult. Those who are over 60 years old, wish their stay to be short and temporary. Their adaptation and integration is hard to achieve due to language and cultural barriers not to mention problems of job skills and lack of access to opportunities. They constantly feel estranged and seek information and contact with the homeland. As the result, they often get involved in politics.

Despite generational and gender issues, most Sidamas in exile left behind families, social networks and cultural resources. Deprived of these vital resources, they have to struggle to forge new identities and relations in a foreign, sometimes hostile social and political environment. In the new environment, they attained physical security and safety being away from harms way at the cost of loss of family and community social security of the homeland.

The diaspora who live in the West enjoy the rights denied at home including freedom of expression, association, and organization for the first time. They make use of human agency and enabled themselves articulating the cause, not only of their own but also of those left behind and left without voice. Through this agency, diaspora members of concerned groups created community, political, and scholarly organizations to openly define and defend their individual and collective interests and the Sidama national interest in foreign lands. The diaspora also helped the Sidama people build bridges that connect them to the global community. In the era of globalization they use developments in communication technologies to forge close linkages among themselves on the global level.


The Horn of Africa has been ravaged by conflict and violence since the 1970s and the 1980s. Deteriorating life conditions associated with famine and political upheaval and civil war led to forced displacement of people in Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan. Ethiopia in particular is a complex arena of conflict, wars and deprivation. 

The widely accepted narration through stories and tales by the Sidama elders and scholars about their experience and historical memory within Ethiopia is one of repression and discrimination. Yet the Ethiopian official discourse does not address the problem save concealing it by selectively memorizing events and course of actions that justify its line of choice. National identity is hotly contested and led to conflicts and wars causing forced migration and the formation of Sidama diaspora. More significantly, government repression and violence forced thousands to abandon their homes to escape conscription, starvation and death by seeking refuge elsewhere. They are now scattered around the globe, particularly in Africa, Europe, Australia and North America. As the result, the base of the Sidama diaspora community is expanding both in number and diversity.

The flight routes and destinations of refugees are predicated largely not on their choice but the geographic and historical proximity of host countries. Countries such as the US, Canada, Australia and Norway had established procedures to identify and receive refugees from camps recognized by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). Other factors include: contacts, relations, income, and information people have of host countries. It is notable that such information is often meager, less comprehensive and at times inaccurate.

On becoming part of the Sidama diaspora, some refugees, asylums seekers and migrants take part in political or human rights activism. Others form community organizations supporting relatives and friends in the homeland through remittances. Musicians and intellectuals played a great role in the imagination of nationhood, studying the roots of Sidama people, its homeland, observing and announcing national tragedies and enforcing the sense of national obligation.

In sum, the role of Sidama diaspora has increased in the era of globalization which is characterized by developments in information, communication and transportation technologies that have reduced the relevance of physical boundaries. By developing cultural iconography, campaigning for human rights, and advocating for change or political progress, the Sidama intellectuals have played a great role at times giving voice to the voiceless, the invisible and the oppressed. Yet a lot remains to be done to develop literature, art, music and other cultural productions.


Bulcha, Mekuria. 2006. "Conquest and forced migration: An assessment of the Oromo experience". In Seyoum Hameso and Mohammed Hassen (eds). Arrested development in Ethiopia: Essays on underdevelopment, democracy and self-determination. Trenton, Asmara: Red Sea Press. pp:27-56. 

Hameso, Seyoum. 2006. "The Sidama Nation: An Introduction." In Seyoum Hameso and Mohammed Hassen (eds). Arrested Development in Ethiopia…pp.57-75.

Horst, Cindy. 2006. Buufis amongst Somalis in Dadaab: The transnational and historical logics behind resettlement dreams. Journal of Refugee Studies. 19(2), 1-15. 

Gow, Greg. 2004. Translocations of affirmation: Mediascapes and cultural flows among the stateless Oromo, International Journal of Cultural Studies. 7(3), 301–319.

Holcomb, Bonnie, and Sisai Ibssa. 1990. The Invention of Ethiopia. Trenton, NJ Red Sea Press.

Said, Edward. 2000. "Reflections in exile." In Edward Said, Reflections on exile and other essays. London: Granta.

Said, Edward. 2001. "Interview: Reflections on exile and other essays" June 17. Available on: 

Zewde, Bahru. 2002. History of modern Ethiopia, 1855–1991, Second Edition. Oxford: James Currey Publishers.



Thursday, November 25, 2010

የኢንዱስትሪ እድገት መጨመር በተፈጥሮ አካባቢ ላይ አሉታዊ ተጽንኦ ያሳድራል፡፡

በእድገቱ ሳቢያ በተፈጥሮ ላይ የሚደርሰውን አደጋ ለመከላከል ደግሞ በየደረጃው የሚገኘው የህብረተሰብ ክፍል ለአካባቢ ጥበቃ ትኩረት ሰጥቶ መንቀሳቀስ ይገባል፡፡

በኤስ.ኦ.ኤስ ሳህል ኢትዮጵያ የሀዋሳን ሀይቅ ከብክለት የመከላከል ፕሮጀክት ማነጀር አቶ ታደለ ባንቶ እንዳሉት ድርጅቱ ከዛሬ አንድ አመት በፊት ከኖርዌ ፕዩፕል ኤይድ በተገኘው የገንዘብ ድጋፍ ሀይቁን በቀጣዩ ሊበክሉ በሚችሉ ጉዳዮች ዙሪያ ፕሮጀክት ቀርጾ ጥናት ሳያደርግ ቆይቷል፡፡

ጥናቱ በሀይቁ የውሃ ይዘት፣ ብክለት ሊያደርሱ ይችላሉ ተብለው በሚታሰቡ መንስኤዎችና መከላከያ መንገዶች ላይ ያተኮረ እንደነበር ተገልጿል፡፡  

ጥናቱ በአምስት አጢኝ ቡድኖች የተዘጋጀ ሲሆን ውጤቱ ለውይይት ቀርቧል፡፡

ከፋብሪካዎች የሚወጡ ፈሳሾችና በጥቁር ውሃ አካባቢ የሚገኘው የከባድ ብረት ኬሚካል ወደ ሀይቁ የሚደርሱበት አጋጣሚ ሊኖር ስለሚችል ከወዲሁ ጥንቃቄ ሊደረግበት እንደሚገባ አቶ ታደለ ተናግረዋል፡፡

የሀዋሳ ከተማ ውበቷን እንደጠበቀች ልትቀጥል የምትችለው የሀይቁን ቀጣይነት በማረጋገጥ ስለሆነ በሀይቁ ላይ ብክለት ሊያደርሱ የሚችሉ ነገሮችን ለመከላከል ሁሉም በጋራ ሊረባረብ እንደሚገባ አስገንዝበዋል፡፡

ከጥናቱ አቅራቢያዎች መካከል አንዱ የሆኑት ዶክተር በቀለ ለማ በበኩላቸው ሀይቁ ለከተማው በቅርብ ርቀት ላይ የሚገኝ ስለሆነ አስፈላጊው ክትትልና እንክብካቤ ሊደረግለት ይገባል ብለዋል፡፡

ለዚህም በየደረጃው የሚገኘው ህብረተሰብ በሀይቁ አያያዝና በአካ ባቢ ጥበቃ ጉዳዮች ላይ ግንዛቤ እንዲኖረው ማድረግ ቀዳሚውን ስፍራ እንደሚያዝ ጠቁመዋል፡፡

ከተለያዩ አካባቢዎች የሚነሱ ቆሻሻዎች በቀጥታ ወደ ሀይቁ ከገቡ በስነ-ምህዳሩ ላይ ጉዳት ስለሚያደርሰ ቆሻሻዎችን በሀይቅ ዳር ከመጣል መቆጠብ እንደሚገባ አሳስበዋል፡፡

በቀረቡ ጥናታዊ ጽሁፎችም የአውደ ጥናቱ ተሳታፊዎች የተለያዩ ሀሳቦችን በማንሳት ተወያይተዋል፡፡

የሀዋሳ ንግድና ዘርፍ ማህበራት ምክር ቤት ፕሬዝዳንትና የደቡብና የኢትዮጵያ ንግድና ዘርፍ ማህበራት ምክር ቤት የዳይሬክተሮች ቦርድ አባል ሻለቃ ፊልሞን ጁታ በአሉን ምክንያት በማድረግ በሰጡት መግለጫ በመንግስት ምቹ የኢንቨስትመንት ፓሊሲ በመታገዝ የከተማዋን ፈጣን እድገት ወደዚህ ደረጃ በማድረስ ረገድ የነጋዴው ሚና ከፍተኛ መሆኑን ተናግረዋል፡፡

ሀዋሳ ባሳየችው ፈጣን እድገት ደረጃቸውን የጠበቁ ውብ፣ ዘመናዊና ምቹ ሁቴሎች፣ ካፍቴሪያዎችና ሌሎችም የአገልግሎት ሰጪ ተቋማት እንዲሁም መሰረተ ልማት የተስፋፉበት ከተማ ለመሆን በቅታለች፡፡

ህብረ ብሔሯ ሀዋሳ ህዳር 29 የብሄረሰቦች ቀን፣ የኢህአዴግ ድርጅታዊ ጉባኤ እና ሌሎችም ሀገር አቀፍ በአላትን በማስተናገድ ብቃቷ እንደምትታወቅ ፕሬዝዳንቱ ሻለቃ ፊልሞን ገልፀዋል፡፡ 

እንግዶችን በማስተናገድ ተገቢውን ልምድ ያካበቱት የደቡብ መዲና የህብረ ብሄሯ ከተማ ነጋዴዎች የሀዋሳ 50ኛ አመትና የ2003 የከተሞች ቀን ለማክበር ወደ ከተማዋ የመጡትን እንግዶች ለማስተናገድ ሁሉም በአንድነት ከመቼውም ጊዜ በላቀ ሁኔታ ተዘጋጅተዋል ብለዋል፡፡

ከዚህ አንጻር በመኝታ፣ በካፍቴሪያና በሆቴል አገልግሎት ያለምንም የዋጋ ጭማሪ በተገቢው በማስተናገድ የከተማዋን መልካም ስምና ገጽታ በይበልጥ ለማሳደግ በከተማው ነጋዴዎች በኩል አስፈላጊውን ዝግጅት መደረጉን ፕሬዝዳንቱ ገልጸዋል፡፡

ከሚመጡት እንግዶች ነጋዴው ተጠቃሚ ከመሆኑ ባሻገር እንደግዶች፣ ኢንቨስተሮችና የንግዱ ማህበረሰብ አባላትን የሚያካትት በመሆኑ ከተማዋን ለማስተዋወቅና ተጨማሪ ኢንቨስተሮችን ለመሳብ ምቹ ሁኔታ እንደሚፈጥር ፕሬዝዳንቱ ጨምረው አስታውቀዋል፡፡

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

 The construction of a district hospital is well underway in Sidama Zone of Leku Town, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP) Regional State, at a cost of six million Birr, the wereda health office announced.  

The hospital, which is to consist of maternity and minor surgery wards, is expected to benefit an estimated 80,000 people and raise the state’s health coverage to 94pc upon its completion, according to the office. 

The funding for the construction was covered by Wide Horve, a nongovernmental organisation (NGO).

አዲስ አበባ፣ ህዳር 15 2003 (ሬዲዮ ፋና) በነገው ዕለት በሃዋሳ ከተማ ለሚከበረው2ኛው ሃገር አቀፍ የከተሞች
ቀን በዓል ለማክበር የሚያስችል ቅድመ ዝግጅት መጠናቀቁን የከተማዋ ከንቲባ ተናገሩ።

ባለፈው ዓመት አንደኛው የከተሞች ቀን በአዲስ አበባ ሲከበር የስራና ከተማ ልማት ሚኒስቴር
ባዘጋጀው የ40 ከተሞች ውድድር ላይ የሃዋሳ ከተማ በገፅታ ግንባታና በልማታዊ ስራዎች አንደኛ በመውጣቷ
 2ኛውን የከተሞች ቀንእንድታዘጋጅ መርጧታል።

ከተማዋ ይህን በዓል ከማዘጋጀት ጎን ለጎንም የተቆረቆረችበትን 50ኛ የወርቅ ኢዮቤልዮበዓል በጥምረት ለማክበር
ዘርፈ ብዙ እንቅስቃሴዎችን ስታከናውን ቆይታለች።
ይህን ድርብ በዓል በደማቅ ሁኔታ ለማክበርም የተለያዩ ዝግጅቶች መደረጋቸውን የከተማዋከንቲባ 
አቶ ሽብቁ ማደኔ ተናግረዋል።
በዓሉ በከተማዋ መከበሩ የከተማዋን ገጽታ ለማስተዋወቅና በከተማዋ ያሉ የኢንቨስትመንትአማራጮችን ለመላው 
ኢትዮጵያውያን ለማስተዋወቅ ትልቅ እገዛ ይኖረዋል ብለዋል።
ባለፉት ዓመታት የተገኙትን ስኬታማ የገፅታ ግንባታ ስራዎችን በማስቀጠልም ከተማዋን የኢንቨስትመንትና 
የቱሪስት መስህብ ማዕከል ለማድረግ በዓሉ ከፍተኛ ፋይዳ እንዳለው ገልጸዋል።
አያይዘውም ከተሞች የተሻሉ የልምድ ልውውጦች የሚያደርጉበትና ለ5 አመቱ የዕድገትናየትራንስፎርሜሽን
ዕቅድ መሳካት የሚያደርጉትን ትግል ለመማማር እንደሚያግዝም አስረድተዋል።

ወደ ከተማዋ በርካታ ከፍተኛ ባለስልጣናት፣ አምባሳደሮች፣ ከውጭና  በሃገር ውስጥ የሚገኙ የከተማዋ 
ተወላጆች እንዲሁም ከተለያዩ የሃገራችንከተሞች በዓሉን ለማድመቅ የሚመጡ በርካታ ዕንግዶች በመግባት
ላይ ይገኛሉ።

እነዚህን ዕንግዶች በአክብሮት በመቀበልና በማስተናገድ የከተማዋ ነዋሪዎች የተለመደውንየዕንግዳ ተቀባይነት 
ባህል እንዲያሳዩም ከንቲባው ጠይቀዋል።
በበዓሉ ላይ 82 ከተሞች ቀጣዩን በዓል ለማዘጋጀት የሚያስችል ከፍተኛ ውድድር በተለያዩ ዘርፎች 
እንደሚያደርጉም ታውቋል።

Wilco Gets Their Own Brand Of Coffee 
Posted by Mitch Michaels on 11.23.2010 


Wilco has launched the "Wilco Selects" coffee brand, which features beans personally tasted by the band's John Stirratt and Patrick Sansone at Intelligentsia's Cupping Lab earlier this fall.

The coffee - Single Origin, Organic Ethiopia Sidama Homecho Waeno - comes from the Sidama region of Ethiopia and is grown by the Homecho Waeno co-op. You can also get the "Wilco Doesn't Select" brand, which is a decaf version.

"In full disclosure, no decaf coffee was selected by the members of Wilco during the tasting field trip,"a press release says. "But our friends at Intelligentsia tell us this is as good a decaf as it gets."

Orders are being taken now through Sunday on Wilco's site, and the beans will be freshly roasted on December 1st. 

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

በሀዋሳ ከተማ በዘርፉ ለተሰማሩ አርሶ አደሮችና ባለሙያዎች የተዘጋጀ ስልጠና ላይ በባለስልጣኑ የትምህርት ህዝብ ግንኙነትና መረጃ አሰጣጥ የስራ ሂደት ዳይሬክተር አቶ ጌታቸው ተስፋ እንደገለፁት በተለምዶ ሲሰራበት የቆየውን የግብይት ስርአት በወጥ መረጃ የተደገፈ በማድረግ አምራቹ ተጠቃሚ የሚሆንበት ስርአት ተዘርግቷል፡፡
የተለምዶ አሰራሩ አምራቹ ብዙ ተጠቃሚ ያልሆነበት፣ ደካማ የገበያ መረጃ ስርጭትና የገበያ መዋዠቅ የሚታይበት እንደነበር ገልፀው ባለስልጣኑ ውጤታማ የሆነ ዘመናዊ የግብይት ስርአት በመዘርጋት የግብይት ስርአቱ ወጥነት ያለው እንዲሆን ማድረጉን አስታውቀዋል፡፡
ባለስልጣኑ ከክልሉ ህብረትስራና ግብይት ቢሮ ጋር በመተባበር አምራቾችን ከመጀመሪያ ደረጃ የግብይት የቡና ቅምሻ ማዕከላትና ከቡና አቅራቢ ህጋዊ ነጋዴዎች ጋር የማስተሳሰር ስራ እየተከናወነ መሆኑን ገልጸዋል፡፡
የሲዳማ ዞን ቡና አምራች ወረዳዎች የሚገኙ ቡና አምራች አርሶ አደሮች ለምርታቸው ተገቢ ዋጋ እንዲያገኙ በግብይት አሰራርና ዘመናዊ የግብይት ስርአት ላይ ግንዛቤያቸውን ለማዳበር ስልጠናውን መዘጋጀቱን አቶ ጌታቸው አስታውቀዋል፡፡
ለሁለት ቀናት በሚካሄደው ስልጠና ላይ ከሲዳማ ዞን ቡና አምራች ወረዳዎች የተውጣጡ አርሶ አደሮች የህብረት ስራ ማህበራት ዩኒየኖች፣ የግብርና ባለሙያዎችና የመስተዳደር አካላት ተገኝተዋል ሲል ባልደረባችን በላይ ጥላሁን ዘግቧል፡፡
በድርብ በዓሉ ምክንያት በርካታ ቁጥር ያላቸው እንግዶች ይመጣሉ ተብሎም ይጠበቃል፡፡
የከተማዋ ትራንስፖርት ጽህፈት ቤትና ፖሊስ መምሪያ የትራንስፖርት ሂደቱን ለማሳለጥና ወንጀልን በጋራ ለመከላከል ይቻል ዘንድ ከባጃጂ አሽከራሪዎችና ባለሃብቶች ጋር የምክክር መድረክ አዘጋጅቷል፡፡
የሃዋሳ ከተማ ትራንስፖርት ጽህፈት ቤት ሃላፊ አቶ ሳሙኤል አቤቶ እንደገለጹት በከተማዋ ያለውን የትራንስፖርት ሂደት የተሳካ ለማድረግ በርካታ ሥራዎች ተሰርተዋል፡፡
በዚህ ምክንያትም በየዓመቱ የሚከሰተው የትራፊክ አደጋ ተከትሎ የሚመጣው የአደጋ ቁጥር መቀነሱን አቶ ሳሙኤል ተናግረዋል፡፡
የባጃጅ አሽከራሪዎችም ህግን በማክበር ህዝቡነ ማገልገልና የትራፊክ አደጋን ለመቀነስ መሥራት እንዳለባቸው አሳስበዋል፡፡
የሃዋሳ ከተማ ፖሊስ ወንጀል መከላከል የሥራ ሂደት አስተባባሪ ኢስፔክተር ታደሰ አሚጦ በበኩላቸው በከተማዋ የሚፈጸሙ ወንጀሎችን ለመከላከል የባጃጅ አሽከርካሪዎች ትልቅ ሚና እንዳላቸው ተናግረዋል፡፡
የባጃጅ አሽከርካሪ ሆነው ወንጀለኞችን የሚተባበሩ ጥቂት ግለሰቦች ቢኖሩም አብዛኛዎቹ በተገቢው መንገድ አገልግሎት የሚሰጡ በመሆኑ ህበረተሰቡ አልፎ አልፎ የሚያንፀባርቀው የተሳሳተ አመለካከት ተገቢ እንዳልሆነ ኢንስፔክተር ታደሰ ገልጸዋል፡፡
ለእግረኛ ቅድሚያ ያለመስጠት፣ ጠጥቶ ማሽከርከር፣ ትርፍ መጫን፣ በእግረኛ መንገድ መቆምና መሰል የህግ ጥሰቶች በባጃጂ አሽከርካሪዎች ላይ እንደሚታዩ ተናናገሩት፤ ሳጂን ተስፋዬ ደምሴ የሃዋሳ ከተማ የመንገድ ትራፊክ ደህንነት የሥራ ሂደት አስተባባሪ ናቸው፡፡
በመሆኑም እነዚህ ችግሮች ቀርፎ ለህበረተሰቡ ተገቢውን አገልግሎት መስጠት ይቻል ዘንድ የጋራ ምክክር መድረኩ መዘጋጀቱን ሳጂን ተስፋዬ ተናግረዋል፡፡
የባጃጂ ባለንበረቶችና አሽከራሪዎች በበኩላቸው እግረኛው የማቋረጫ መስመሮችን በአግባቡ ያለመጠቀም፣ ከትምህርት ይልቅ ቅጣት ማስቀደም፣ በተፈቀደ ሰዓት እንዳይንቀሳቀሱ መደረግ፣ የዜብራ አሰማመር ችግርን እንደጥያቄ አንስተው የሚመለከታቸው አካላት መልስ ሰጥተዋል፡፡
የዚህ ዓይነቱ መድረክ በየጊዜው እንደሚካሄድ ከሃዋሳ ከተማ ትራንስፖርት ጽህፈት ቤት የተገኘ መረጃ ያመላክታል፡፡

Monday, November 22, 2010

Queen Furra

The Kushitic Civilization of North East Africa: An Overview

Side Goodo

1. Introduction

The Kushitic (Cushitic) peoples of North East Africa are the indigenous peoples of the present day Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya since at least 5000 BC. The equivalent name of the indigenous Kushitic peoples of North East Africa was Ethiopid, from which the name of the present day Ethiopia was derived. Due to the dynamics of conflicts, migration, assimilation and other politico-demographic influences over the past seven millennia, the Kushitic population dwindled to a small minority in the Sudan, Eritrea and Kenya while they are still majorities in Ethiopia and Somalia. In Ethiopia over 52% of the current population of 80 million are Kushitic peoples while almost the entire population in Somalia is Kushitic. 

The only Kushitic group living in the Sudan at present is the Beja people of the Southern Sudan while in Eritrea the Saho and the Afar form a significant proportion of the total population. The majority of the Afar people live in Ethiopia. Other Kushitic peoples living in Ethiopia at present are: Oromo (the largest Kushitic people in the continent with the total population of over 26 million); the Sidamas: Sidama, Alaba, Xamabaro, and Qewena (also known formerly as the Sidama Kingdom with the total population of over 8 million form the second largest Kushitic group in Ethiopia); and Ogadeni Somalis with the total population of over 5 million, represent the third largest group. Other smaller Kushitic groups in Ethiopia include Hadiya, Agaw, Burji, Maraqo and so on. In Kenya the Kushitic Rendille and Sakuye together with the Borena Oromo and Samalis occupy about 25 percent of land area but only about 3% of the total population. 

The Kushitic civilization in the Upper Nile Valley of North East Africa reached its height during the second millennium BC. In the second millennium BC, the Kushitic Kingdom located in Nubia in the present day Sudan, was a major rival of Egypt while its influence extended well into sub-Saharan Africa. The Kingdom surivived well into the first millennium BC when it was finally defeated by the Nubian people [1]. However, other historians argue that the Kushitic Kingdom flourished in Meroe, South of its Nubia based former capital Napata for six more centuries until the third century AD. 

However, the Kushitic civilization of the second and first millennium BC was overshadowed by the Egyptian influence and the most recent Axumite civilization. As a result little research has been done regarding the Kushitic kingdom and little is known about the great history of the Kushitic peoples of North East Africa. In particular, little is known about the Kushitic Pharaohs. 

North East Africa is often cited as the center of some of the oldest civilizations in the world. As a matter of fact, there are scientific indications that East Africa is a cradle of humanity whereas some prominent historians point out that North East African civilization predates Greek Classical Civilization [2]. 

The rest of the article is organized as follows: section 2 presents an overview of the rise and decline of the Kushitic kingdom. Section 3 reviews the linguistic connectivity of Kushitic peoples while section 4 concludes. 

2. The Rise and the Decline of the Kushitic Kingdom

When we talk about the great Pharaohs and the pyramids what often come to our mind are Egypt and the Egyptian civilization. There is nothing wrong with that. However, what is wrong is our continued ignorance about the great Kushitic Pharaohs who ruled Egypt and who built more pyramids in the present day Sudan than in Egypt itself. 

The Kush kingdom was a great civilization in the Northern Valley of the Nile River. The kingdom began to rise at the end of the New Kingdom of Egypt which during the Pharaoh Tuthmoses III marched as far south as the fifth cataract of the Nile river. Historians have universally agreed that the Kushitic King Alara unified Upper Nubia around 780 BC declaring Napata (Northern Sudan), the capital while his successor King Kashata unified both the Upper and Lower Nubia and claimed for himself the title Pharaoh [3]. Other Kushitic Pharaohs include Pharaoh Piye or Piankhy who conquered Thebes and founded Egypt´s 25th Dynasty. 

Lasting for a little less than 100 years, the 25th Dynasty had five Kushitic Pharaohs claiming the throne, the most famous being Pharaoh Taharqa. Leaving numerous monuments both in Egypt and Sudan, one of his most famous deeds was the restoration and building efforts in Karnak Temple, notes the First Court of Amun. Taharqa was a heroic war veteran and under his reign the Kushite Kingdom expanded as far as the borders of Libya and Palestine. Unfortunately for him, the Assyrians were rising exponentially and in no time they stormed Egypt, forcing Taharqa to flee Thebes and seek shelter in Napata [3].

Other historians describe the Kushitic rule in Egypt in the following manner. According to [4] eager to show his devotion to Egyptian deities, the Kushitic king Shabaka devoted particular attention to the ancient site of Memphis. From a document known as the Memphite Theology, which dates to the Old Kingdom, we are well informed on Memphite and Heliopolitan beliefs. Other indications of piety include the Kushite cap worn by these kings. It was similar to a cap worn by the god Ptah and stresses the special attention paid to Egyptian gods. Kushitic kings were also responsible for much expansion and renovation of existing temples in both Egypt and Nubia. Managing the God's Wife in Thebes also guaranteed their control of Thebes. It was also during the 25th Dynasty that important changes in Egyptian art appear. These include more realistic depiction of the human body as well as return to classical forms of the Old and Middle Kingdom. Nonetheless, once again the threat from abroad, in the form of the Assyrians, proved too much for the rulers of Egypt. Tantamani fled to Nubia, thus ending Kushitic rule in Egypt.

Little was known about the period between the retreat of Pharaoh Taharqa from Egypt to Napata (North Sudan) and the third century BC when Kushitic King Arkamani moved the capital from Napata further South to Meroe (midway between Khartoum and Atbara). [By the way, the names of Kushitc kings of the time had a suffix "amani" while the names of the Queens had the same word "amani" as a prefix. Today "amani" means "believe" in major Kushitic languages such as Sidama and Oromo]. The transfer of the Kushite Kingdom´s capital indicates a move from the dependency on Egypt as a base for culture and a step towards being a more indigenous civilization [3]. The move which involved limiting the excessive power of the Kushitic holy priests, also paved the way for the introduction of worshiping the local deities as opposed to adapting Egyptian ones, in particular the Egyptian Amun. Accordingly, the local god Apedemark was moved up the scale to an equal level with Amun and the use of hieroglyphics as a functional language was abandoned, to be replaced with Meroitic (Kushitic) script [3]. 

The Meroitic period of Kushitic civilization flourished for six centuries from third century BC to third century AD. However, the third century marked the beginning of the decline of the Kushitic civilization. The main reason for the decline in Kushitic civilization in Meroe was the decline in trade with Egypt which was then ruled by Romans who were themselves declining. Trade was the backbone of the Kushite economy and the declining trade between the two kingdoms weakened the kingdoms economy. 

On the other side, South East of Meroe, the Kingdom of Aksum was growing in power around the third century AD. In 350 AD, Axumite King Ezana was able to capture Meroe and undermined the Kushitic civilization until the Agaw (Zagwe), Highland Kush, Dynasty recaptured it in 922 AD.

The Zagwe dynasty ruled in North east Africa between 922 AD (some argue that the period was earlier than this) when Aksum declined, until 1270 AD. The area under the Zagwe (Agaw) Dynasty probably included: the highlands of modern Eritrea, the whole of Tigray region of Ethiopia, and Wollo and Gonder provinces of the present Amhara region of Ethiopia. The most famous king of the Zagwe Kushitic Dynasty was King Lalibela who boosted Christianity in the country by building a cluster of miraculous rock hewn churches that are one of the UNESCO´s World heritage sites today.

After 1270 the Kushitic Civilization was generally weakened permanently. The Sidama Kingdom under the Sidama´s famous Queen Furra (in whose name a memorial College was built in 1996 in Yirgalem, Sidama) revived in much smaller scale in the present day Southern Ethiopia until the medieval era. However, since the late 1880s the majority Kushitic Ethiopians have been completely annexed by the northern Abyssinian settlers and have been subjected to wanton economic exploitation and political subjugation which resulted in the present day poverty and economic malaise. 

3. The Linguistic Connectivity of the Kushitic Peoples 

The history of over 4000 years of Kushitic civilization is preserved through the interconnections of Kushitic culture and languages. The Kushitic languages are a sub group of Afro-Asiatic languages. A prominent linguist Joseph Greenberg [5] divides Kushitic languages into 4 major subgroups. These include: 

(a)Beja language (often placed outside Kushitic proper)

(b)Central Kushitic or Agaw language 

(c)East Kushitic languages (Oromo, Sidama, Somali and Afar)

(d)South Kushitic or Rift valley languages (Iraqwe-Alagwa, Burunge and arguably Dahalo in Kenya and Tanzania)

The Beja language is spoken today by the nomads in parts of Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea while the Agaw language is spoken by small groups in Eritrea and Ethiopia including Agaw and Bilen. The East Kushitic languages are more diverse and comprise more than thirty languages belonging to Kushitic languages with in Afro-Asiatic Phylum [5]. Dahalo lanaguge spoken in Kenya is endangered as only 400 people spoke the language in 1997. Another linguist Richard Hayward [5] breaks up East Kushitic languages into further three well supported families. These are:

a)Sidamic or Highlands 

b)A diverse low land Kush family (with Afar, Somli, and Oromo subgroups) and 

c)Dullay which he believes should be treated separately when attempting to work out the internal relationships of the Kushitic languages. 

The linguistic connectivity is the great heritage of the Kushitic peoples of North East Africa. Their common history and culture reflected in their common language provides an ample opportunity to revive their lost civilization. Together with other Africans in the region, the Kushitic peoples of North East Africa should work hand in hand for greater sub regional unification, economic development and poverty eradication. 


The indigenous North East African Ethioipid (Kushitic peoples) belonged to a great civilization along the Upper Nile Valley during the second and first Millennium BC. The Kushites were the founders and the rulers of the 25th Dynasty in Egypt. During this period, the Kushitic Kingdom extended as far as Libya and Palestine. The rise and the decline of the various Kushite kingdoms continued in various parts of North East Africa until the late 1880s. 

However, the 4000 years of great Kushitic civilization came to an end since the late 1880s when the various Kushitic kingdoms lost their sovereignty to Abyssinian colonizers in the case of the present day Ethiopia and European colonizers in other parts of the sub region. At present the majority Kushitic peoples in Ethiopia languish under poverty, hunger, unemployment and severe economic underdevelopment. 

They have never meaningfully participated in the Ethiopian political leadership for over 120 years. These great peoples of North East Africa should therefore rise once again peacefully and work hand in hand with other Ethiopians to promote democracy, freedom, and eradicate poverty hunger and famine from the country and the sub region once and for all. 


1] Katzner, K. 2002. The Languages of the World. Third edition. Routledge. 

2] Wonderful Likely Continuity of North East Africa´s Long History - Part I: http://www.voicefinfinne.org/English/Column/North_East_Africa_Part1.htm

3] In the reign of the black Pharaohs. See (http://www.afrochat.net/forums/thinktank/19546-reign-black-pharaohs.html)

4] Karol Mysliwiec, 2000. The Twilight of Ancient Egypt First Millenium BCE. Translated by David Lorton. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Reviewed by Monica Bontty, UCLA, Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2001 (http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2001/2001-08-13.html)

5] See http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cushitic-languages